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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Newark : : American Geophysical Union,
    Keywords: Electronic books.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (525 pages)
    ISBN: 9781119548157
    Series Statement: Geophysical Monograph Ser. ; v.254
    Language: English
    Note: Cover -- Title Page -- Copyright Page -- Contents -- LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- PREFACE -- Section I Introduction -- Chapter 1 Introduction to El Niño Southern Oscillation in a Changing Climate -- 1.1. INTRODUCTION -- 1.2. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND -- 1.3. RECENT PROGRESS AND CURRENT CHALLENGES -- 1.4. ENSO IN A CHANGING CLIMATE -- 1.5. CONCLUSION -- ENSO INDICES -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 2 ENSO in the Global Climate System -- 2.1. THE CLIMATE SYSTEM -- 2.2. THE TROPICAL PACIFIC AND MEAN ANNUAL CYCLE -- 2.3. EL NIÑO-SOUTHERN OSCILLATION -- 2.4. TELECONNECTIONS AND MODES OF VARIABILITY -- 2.5. CLIMATE CHANGE -- 2.6. IMPACTS -- REFERENCES -- Section II Observations -- Chapter 3 ENSO Observations -- 3.1. INTRODUCTION -- 3.2. A BRIEF HISTORY -- 3.3. ENSO VARIABILITY -- 3.4. DATA PRODUCTS -- 3.5. OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC REANALYSES -- 3.6. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 4 ENSO Diversity -- 4.1. INTRODUCTION -- 4.2. CHARACTERISTICS OF ENSO DIVERSITY -- 4.3. EQUATORIAL DYNAMICAL PROCESSES UNDERLYING ENSO DIVERSITY -- 4.4. PRECURSORS AND PREDICTABILITY OF ENSO DIVERSITY -- 4.5. LOW-FREQUENCY VARIATIONS OF ENSO DIVERSITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE -- 4.6. ENSO DIVERSITY REPRESENTATION IN CLIMATE MODELS -- 4.7. CONCLUSIONS -- APPENDIX: INDICES OF EL NIÑO DIVERSITY -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 5 Past ENSO Variability: Reconstructions, Models, and Implications -- 5.1. CLIMATIC CONTEXT FOR PALEO-ENSO RECONSTRUCTION -- 5.2. OBSERVATIONAL CONSTRAINTS ON PALEO-ENSO BEHAVIOR -- 5.3. QUANTITATIVE APPROACHES TO ENSO RECONSTRUCTION -- 5.4. PALEO-CONSTRAINTS ON ENSO DYNAMICS -- 5.5. DISCUSSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- APPENDIX: DATA CITATIONS -- Section III Theories and Dynamics -- Chapter 6 Simple ENSO Models -- 6.1. INTRODUCTION -- 6.2. COUPLED LINEAR INSTABILITY. , 6.3. RECHARGE OSCILLATOR (RO) AND BJERKNES-WYRTKI-JIN (BWJ) INDEX -- 6.4. FACTORS CONTROLLING ENSO AMPLITUDE, PERIODICITY, PHASE-LOCKING, ASYMMETRY, AND NONLINEAR RECTIFICATION -- 6.5. OUTLOOK -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE CZ MODEL -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 7 ENSO Irregularity and Asymmetry -- 7.1. INTRODUCTION -- 7.2. IRREGULARITY -- 7.3. ENSO AMPLITUDE ASYMMETRY -- 7.4. ENSO EVOLUTION ASYMMETRY -- 7.5. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 8 ENSO Low-Frequency Modulation and Mean State Interactions -- 8.1. INTRODUCTION -- 8.2. INTRINSICALLY GENERATED MODULATION OF ENSO -- 8.3. EXTERNALLY DRIVEN MODULATION OF ENSO -- 8.4. ENSO AND THE PACIFIC DECADAL OSCILLATION -- 8.5. ENSO DECADAL MODULATION IN OCEAN ENERGETICS -- 8.6. PREDICTION OF ENSO DECADAL MODULATION -- 8.7. ENSO MODULATION AND THE GLOBAL WARMING HIATUS -- 8.8. CONCLUSIONS -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- Section IV Modeling and Prediction -- Chapter 9 ENSO Modeling: History, Progress, and Challenges -- 9.1. HISTORY OF ENSO SIMULATION IN COMPLEX MODELS -- 9.2. BENEFITS OF A HIERARCHY OF MODELS -- 9.3. USING MODELS FOR ENSO UNDERSTANDING -- 9.4. EVALUATING ENSO IN MODELS -- 9.5. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 10 ENSO Prediction -- 10.1. HISTORY OF ENSO FORECASTING -- 10.2. ENSO PREDICTABILITY -- 10.3. ENSO PREDICTION SKILL -- 10.4. DECADAL VARIATION IN ENSO AND ITS SKILL -- 10.5. RECENT ENSO PREDICTION CHALLENGES -- 10.6. CONCLUDING REMARKS -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- Section V Remote and External Forcing -- Chapter 11 ENSO Remote Forcing: Influence of Climate Variability Outside the Tropical Pacific -- 11.1. INTRODUCTION -- 11.2. INDIAN OCEAN -- 11.3. ATLANTIC OCEAN -- 11.4. EXTRATROPICAL PACIFIC -- 11.5. DISCUSSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES. , Chapter 12 The Effect of Strong Volcanic Eruptions on ENSO -- 12.1. INTRODUCTION -- 12.2. VOLCANIC FORCING OF CLIMATE -- 12.3. PALEOCLIMATE EVIDENCE -- 12.4. MODEL EVIDENCE AND DYNAMICS -- 12.5. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 13 ENSO Response to Greenhouse Forcing -- 13.1. INTRODUCTION -- 13.2. FORCED CHANGES IN BACKGROUND CLIMATE -- 13.3. ELUSIVE PROJECTIONS OF ENSO -- 13.4. PROCESS-BASED ENSO PROJECTIONS -- 13.5. UNCERTAINTIES AND MODEL BIASES -- 13.6. SUMMARY AND CONCLUDING REMARKS -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- Section VI Teleconnections and Impacts -- Chapter 14 ENSO Atmospheric Teleconnections -- 14.1. INTRODUCTION -- 14.2. TELECONNECTIONS TO OTHER OCEAN BASINS -- 14.3. TELECONNECTIONS TO LAND REGIONS -- 14.4. ENSO TELECONNECTIONS IN A WARMER WORLD -- 14.5. SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 15 ENSO Oceanic Teleconnections -- 15.1. INTRODUCTION -- 15.2. DIRECTLY FORCED CHANGES IN THE TROPICAL PACIFIC OCEAN CIRCULATION -- 15.3. EXTRATROPICAL TELECONNECTIONS IN THE PACIFIC OCEAN VIA PLANETARY WAVES -- 15.4. INTERBASIN OCEANIC TELECONNECTION -- 15.5. MIXED ATMOSPHERIC-OCEANIC TELECONNECTIONS -- 15.6. CONCLUSIONS: PROJECTED CHANGES IN OCEANIC PATHWAYS RELATED TO ENSO CHANGES IN A WARMING WORLD -- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 16 Impact of El Niño on Weather and Climate Extremes -- 16.1. INTRODUCTION -- 16.2. EXTREME CLIMATE IMPACTS -- 16.3. PREDICTABILITY: HOW AND HOW WELL DO WE PREDICT ENSO'S EXTREME IMPACTS? -- 16.4. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 17 ENSO and Tropical Cyclones -- 17.1. INTRODUCTION -- 17.2. WESTERN NORTH PACIFIC (WNP) TROPICAL CYCLONES -- 17.3. CENTRAL AND EASTERN NORTH PACIFIC (CEP) TCs -- 17.4. NORTH ATLANTIC TCs -- 17.5. NORTH INDIAN OCEAN (NIO) TCs. , 17.6. SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE TCs -- 17.7. TROPICAL CYCLONES AND CLIMATE CHANGE -- 17.8. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 18 ENSO-Driven Ocean Extremes and Their Ecosystem Impacts -- 18.1. INTRODUCTION -- 18.2. EXTREMES IN SEA LEVEL AND SEAWATER TEMPERATURE -- 18.3. IMPACTS ON SHALLOW-WATER MARINE ECOSYSTEMS -- 18.4. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 19 ENSO Impact on Marine Fisheries and Ecosystems -- 19.1. INTRODUCTION -- 19.2. THE HUMBOLDT CURRENT SYSTEM -- 19.3. THE EQUATORIAL PACIFIC AND TROPICAL TUNA FISHERIES -- 19.4. THE CENTRAL NORTH PACIFIC -- 19.5. THE CALIFORNIA CURRENT ECOSYSTEM -- 19.6. THE NORTHEAST PACIFIC SUBPOLAR GYRE -- 19.7. THE NORTHWEST PACIFIC -- 19.8. THE SOUTHWEST PACIFIC -- 19.9. DISCUSSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTs -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 20 ENSO and the Carbon Cycle -- 20.1. INTRODUCTION -- 20.2. CARBON CYCLE VARIABILITY AND ITS CORRELATION WITH ENSO -- 20.3. PROCESSES INVOLVED IN ENSO-CARBON CYCLE INTERACTIONS -- 20.4. IMPACTS OF MAJOR EL NIÑO EVENTS ON THE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE -- 20.5. ROLE OF ENSO IN PREDICTING THE FUTURE BEHAVIOR OF THE EARTH SYSTEM -- 20.6. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS -- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS -- REFERENCES -- Section VII Closing -- Chapter 21 ENSO in a Changing Climate: Challenges, Paleo-Perspectives, and Outlook -- 21.1. INTRODUCTION -- 21.2. SEASONAL CYCLE-ENSO INTERACTIONS -- 21.3. FORCED ENSO CHANGES VS. INTERNAL VARIABILITY, AND THE POTENTIAL FOR INCREASING CONFIDENCE IN ENSO PROJECTIONS -- 21.4. CONCLUDING REMARKS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- GLOSSARY -- INDEX -- EULA.
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  • 2
    Book
    Book
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-American Geophysical Union
    Keywords: Climatic changes ; Ocean-atmosphere interaction ; El Niño Current
    Description / Table of Contents: "Comprehensive and up-to-date information on Earth's most dominant year-to-year climate variation The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the Pacific Ocean has major worldwide social and economic consequences through its global scale effects on atmospheric and oceanic circulation, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, and other natural systems. Ongoing climate change is projected to significantly alter ENSO's dynamics and impacts. El Niño Southern Oscillation in a Changing Climate presents the latest theories, models, and observations, and explores the challenges of forecasting ENSO as the climate continues to change. Volume highlights include: Historical background on ENSO and its societal consequences - Review of key El Niño (ENSO warm phase) and La Niña (ENSO cold phase) characteristics - Mathematical description of the underlying physical processes that generate ENSO variations - Conceptual framework for understanding ENSO changes on decadal and longer time scales, including the response to greenhouse gas forcing ENSO impacts on extreme ocean, weather, and climate events, including tropical cyclones, and how ENSO affects fisheries and the global carbon cycle - Advances in modeling, paleo-reconstructions, and operational climate forecasting - Future projections of ENSO and its impacts - Factors influencing ENSO events, such as inter-basin climate interactions and volcanic eruptions"--
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: XVI, 506 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Edition: First edition
    ISBN: 9781119548126
    Series Statement: Geophysical monograph series 253
    DDC: 551.5/24648
    Language: English
    Note: Includes index , Includes bibliographical references and index
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  • 3
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-American Geophysical Union
    Keywords: Climatic changes ; Ocean-atmosphere interaction ; Climatic changes ; Ocean-atmosphere interaction ; El Niño Current ; Pacific Ocean ; El Niño Current
    Description / Table of Contents: "Comprehensive and up-to-date information on Earth's most dominant year-to-year climate variation The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the Pacific Ocean has major worldwide social and economic consequences through its global scale effects on atmospheric and oceanic circulation, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, and other natural systems. Ongoing climate change is projected to significantly alter ENSO's dynamics and impacts. El Niño Southern Oscillation in a Changing Climate presents the latest theories, models, and observations, and explores the challenges of forecasting ENSO as the climate continues to change. Volume highlights include: Historical background on ENSO and its societal consequences - Review of key El Niño (ENSO warm phase) and La Niña (ENSO cold phase) characteristics - Mathematical description of the underlying physical processes that generate ENSO variations - Conceptual framework for understanding ENSO changes on decadal and longer time scales, including the response to greenhouse gas forcing ENSO impacts on extreme ocean, weather, and climate events, including tropical cyclones, and how ENSO affects fisheries and the global carbon cycle - Advances in modeling, paleo-reconstructions, and operational climate forecasting - Future projections of ENSO and its impacts - Factors influencing ENSO events, such as inter-basin climate interactions and volcanic eruptions"--
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Edition: First edition
    ISBN: 9781119548119 , 111954811X
    Series Statement: Geophysical monograph series
    DDC: 551.5/24648
    Language: English
    Note: Includes index , Includes bibliographical references and index
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-06-23
    Description: Overview The Indian Ocean remains one of the most poorly sampled and overlooked regions of the world ocean. Today, more than 25% of the world’s population lives in the Indian Ocean region and the population of most Indian Ocean rim nations is increasing rapidly. These increases in population are giving rise to mul- tiple stressors in both coastal and open ocean environments. Combined with warming and acidification due to global climate change, these regional stressors are resulting in loss of biodi- versity in the Indian Ocean and also changes in the phenology and biogeography of many spe- cies. These pressures have given rise to an urgent need to understand and predict changes in the Indian Ocean, but the measurements that are needed to do this are still lacking. In response, SCOR, IOC, and IOGOOS have stimulated a second International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE-2). An international Science Plan and an Implementation Strategy for IIOE-2 have been developed, the formulation of national plans is well underway in several countries, and new research initiatives are being motivated. An Early-Career Scientist Network for Indian Ocean Research has self-organized to support the Expedition. The success of IIOE-2 will be gauged not just by how much it advances our understanding of the complex and dynamic Indian Ocean system, but also by how it con- tributes to sustainable development of marine resources, environmental stewardship, ocean and climate forecasting, and training of the next generation of ocean scientists. We encourage ASLO members to get involved.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillan Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 398 (1999), S. 559-562 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Just under a year ago, a sharp drop in equatorial Pacific sea-surface temperatures heralded the end of the 1997-98 El Niño. Called by some “the climate event of the century”, it was by several measures the strongest on record. Identifying why it was so strong challenges our ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 370 (1994), S. 326-327 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] THE El Nino event of 1982-83, the strongest of the century, had dramatic effects on the circulation of the tropical Pacific Ocean1, the marine ecology of the eastern equatorial Pacific2'3 and patterns of weather variability around the globe4. Its oceanic effects also penetrated to higher latitudes ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 415 (2002), S. 603-608 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Decadal temperature fluctuations in the Pacific Ocean have a significant effect on marine ecosystems and the climate of North America. The physical mechanisms responsible for these fluctuations are poorly understood. Some theories ascribe a central role to the wind-driven meridional overturning ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2011. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 41 (2011): 1741–1755, doi:10.1175/2011JPO4437.1.
    Description: An in-depth data analysis was conducted to understand the occurrence of a strong sea surface temperature (SST) front in the central Bay of Bengal before the formation of Cyclone Nargis in April 2008. Nargis changed its course after encountering the front and tracked along the front until making landfall. One unique feature of this SST front was its coupling with high sea surface height anomalies (SSHAs), which is unusual for a basin where SST is normally uncorrelated with SSHA. The high SSHAs were associated with downwelling Rossby waves, and the interaction between downwelling and surface fresh waters was a key mechanism to account for the observed SST–SSHA coupling. The near-surface salinity field in the bay is characterized by strong stratification and a pronounced horizontal gradient, with low salinity in the northeast. During the passage of downwelling Rossby waves, freshening of the surface layer was observed when surface velocities were southwestward. Horizontal convergence of freshwater associated with downwelling Rossby waves increased the buoyancy of the upper layer and caused the mixed layer to shoal to within a few meters of the surface. Surface heating trapped in the thin mixed layer caused the fresh layer to warm, whereas the increase in buoyancy from low-salinity waters enhanced the high SSHA associated with Rossby waves. Thus, high SST coincided with high SSHA. The dominant role of salinity in controlling high SSHA suggests that caution should be exercised when computing hurricane heat potential in the bay from SSHA. This situation is different from most tropical oceans, where temperature has the dominant effect on SSHA.
    Description: This work was supported by the NOAA/Office of Climate Observation (OCO) program.
    Keywords: Rossby waves ; Sea surface temperature ; Sea/ocean surface
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2011. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Nature Publishing Group for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Nature Climate Change 2 (2012): 161-166, doi:10.1038/nclimate1353.
    Description: Subtropical western boundary currents are warm, fast flowing currents that form on the western side of ocean basins. They carry warm tropical water to the mid-latitudes and vent large amounts of heat and moisture to the atmosphere along their paths, affecting atmospheric jet streams and mid-latitude storms, as well as ocean carbon uptake. The possibility that these highly energetic and nonlinear currents might change under greenhouse gas forcing has raised significant concerns, but detecting such changes is challenging owing to limited observations. Here, using reconstructed sea surface temperature datasets and newly developed century-long ocean and atmosphere reanalysis products, we find that the post-1900 surface ocean warming rate over the path of these currents is two to three times faster than the global mean surface ocean warming rate. The accelerated warming is associated with a synchronous poleward shift and/or intensification of global subtropical western boundary currents in conjunction with a systematic change in winds over both hemispheres. This enhanced warming may reduce ocean's ability to absorb anthropogenic carbon dioxide over these regions. However, uncertainties in detection and attribution of these warming trends remain, pointing to a need for a long-term monitoring network of the global western boundary currents and their extensions.
    Description: This work is supported by China National Key Basic Research Project (2007CB411800) and National Natural Science Foundation Projects (40788002, 40921004). WC is supported by the Australian Climate Change Science program and the Southeast Australia Climate Initiative. HN is supported in part by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology through Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas #2205 and by the Japanese Ministry of Environment through Global Environment Research Fund (S-5). MJM is supported by NOAA’s Climate Program Office.
    Description: 2012-07-29
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-12-21
    Description: © The Author(s), 2016. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Biogeosciences 13 (2016): 5065-5083, doi:10.5194/bg-13-5065-2016.
    Description: One of the major challenges to assessing the impact of ocean acidification on marine life is detecting and interpreting long-term change in the context of natural variability. This study addresses this need through a global synthesis of monthly pH and aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) climatologies for 12 open ocean, coastal, and coral reef locations using 3-hourly moored observations of surface seawater partial pressure of CO2 and pH collected together since as early as 2010. Mooring observations suggest open ocean subtropical and subarctic sites experience present-day surface pH and Ωarag conditions outside the bounds of preindustrial variability throughout most, if not all, of the year. In general, coastal mooring sites experience more natural variability and thus, more overlap with preindustrial conditions; however, present-day Ωarag conditions surpass biologically relevant thresholds associated with ocean acidification impacts on Mytilus californianus (Ωarag 〈 1.8) and Crassostrea gigas (Ωarag 〈 2.0) larvae in the California Current Ecosystem (CCE) and Mya arenaria larvae in the Gulf of Maine (Ωarag 〈 1.6). At the most variable mooring locations in coastal systems of the CCE, subseasonal conditions approached Ωarag =  1. Global and regional models and data syntheses of ship-based observations tended to underestimate seasonal variability compared to mooring observations. Efforts such as this to characterize all patterns of pH and Ωarag variability and change at key locations are fundamental to assessing present-day biological impacts of ocean acidification, further improving experimental design to interrogate organism response under real-world conditions, and improving predictive models and vulnerability assessments seeking to quantify the broader impacts of ocean acidification.
    Description: The CO2 and ocean acidification observations were funded by NOAA’s Climate Observation Division (COD) in the Climate Program Office and NOAA’s Ocean Acidification Program. The maintenance of the Stratus and WHOTS Ocean Reference Stations were also supported by NOAA COD (NA09OAR4320129). Additional support for buoy equipment, maintenance, and/or ancillary measurements was provided by NOAA through the US Integrated Ocean Observing System office: for the La Parguera buoy under a Cooperative Agreement (NA11NOS0120035) with the Caribbean Coastal Ocean Observing System, for the Chá b˘a buoy under a Cooperative Agreement (NA11NOS0120036) with the Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observing System, for the Gray’s Reef buoy under a Cooperative Agreement (NA11NOS0120033) with the Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association, and for the Gulf of Main buoy under a Cooperative Agreement (NA11NOS0120034) with the Northeastern Regional Association of Coastal and Ocean Observing Systems.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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