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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    San Diego :Elsevier Science & Technology,
    Keywords: Plant chemical defenses. ; Electronic books.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (481 pages)
    Edition: 2nd ed.
    ISBN: 9780323139403
    DDC: 574.5/3
    Language: English
    Note: Front Cover -- Herbivores: Their Interactions with Secondary Plant Metabolites -- Copyright Page -- Table of Contents -- List of Contributors -- Preface -- Chapter 1. Nonprotein Amino Acids as Protective Allelochemicals -- I. Introduction -- II. Isolation and Detection -- III. Lathyrogens and Neurotoxins -- IV. Arginine Antagonists -- V. Heterocyclic Metabolites -- VI. Selenium-Containing Compounds -- VII. Ringed Structures -- VIII. Nonprotein Amino Acids as Protective Allelochemicals -- References -- Chapter 2. Cyanide and Cyanogenic Glycosides -- I. Introduction -- II. Chemical Nature of Cyanogenic Glycosides -- III. Biosynthesis -- IV. Enzymatic Hydrolysis -- V. How Plants Deal with Cyanide -- VI. Localization of Cyanogenic Glycosides -- VII. Distribution of Cyanogenic Glycosides -- VIII. Variation and Polymorphism in Cyanogenesis -- IX. Cyanogenesis in Animals -- X. Detection and Analysis of Cyanide -- XI. Characterization and Quantitation of Cyanogenic Glycosides -- XII. Toxicity of Cyanogenic Plants -- XIII. Role of Cyanogenic Glycosides in Herbivory -- XIV. Compounds Related to Cyanogenic Glycosides -- XV. Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 3. Alkaloids -- I. Introduction -- II. General Aspects -- III. Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloids -- IV. Monoterpenoid Indole Alkaloids -- V. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids -- VI. Quinolizidine Alkaloids -- VII. Alkaloidal Glycosidase Inhibitors (Polyhydroxy Alkaloids) -- VIII. Miscellaneous Alkaloids -- IX. Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 4. Glucosinolates: Chemistry and Ecology -- I. Introduction -- II. Taxonomic, Biogeographic, and Ecological Distribution -- III. Chemistry and Biochemistry -- IV. Analytical Methods -- V. Glucosinolates as Defenses against Nonadapted Herbivores -- VI. Glucosinolates in Host Specificity of Adapted Insect Herbivores. , VII. Constraints on Glucosinolates as Determinants of Host Specificity -- VIII. Glucosinolates in Plant Dynamics and Indirect Interactions -- IX. Summary -- References -- Chapter 5. Terpenoids -- I. Introduction -- II. Classification and Biosynthesis -- III. Analytical Methods -- IV. Interactions with Herbivores -- V. Distribution within Plants and Its Significance for Plant-Herbivore Interactions -- VI. Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 6. Coumarins -- I. Nomenclature and Structure -- II. Isolation and Characterization -- III. Biosynthesis -- IV. Distribution among Plants -- V. Distribution within Plants -- VI. Biochemical Properties of Coumarins -- VII. Biological Properties of Coumarins -- VIII. Population Ecology of Coumarins -- IX. Evolutionary Ecology of Coumarins -- X. Ecosystem Ecology of Coumarins -- References -- Chapter 7. Cardenolide-Meditated Interactions Between Plant and Herbivores -- I. Introduction -- II. Distribution and Activity of Cardenolides in Plants -- III. Herbivore Responses to Plant Cardenolides -- IV. Defensive Use of Cardenolides by Insect Herbivores -- V. Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 8. Iridoid Glycosides -- I. Introduction -- II. What Are Iridoid Glycosides? -- III. Occurrence of Iridoid Glycosides in Plants -- IV. Chemistry of Iridoid Glycosides: Isolation, Structural Determination, and Quantification of Iridoid Glycosides -- V. Importance of Iridoid Glycosides for Plants -- VI. Importance of Iridoid Glycosides for Adapted Specialist Insects -- VII. Summary and Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 9. Lectins -- I. Introduction -- II. General Considerations -- III. Physiological Role in the Plant -- IV. Interaction with Higher Organisms -- V. Mode of Action -- VI. Future Prospects -- References -- Chapter 10. Tannins and Lignins -- I. Introduction -- II. Tannins -- III. Lignins -- References. , Chapter 11. Flavonoid Pigments -- I. Introduction -- II. Structural Variation -- III. Analytical Aspects -- IV. General Biological Properties -- V. Detoxification in Animals -- VI. Flavonoids and Insects -- VII. Effect of Isoflavonoids on Mammalian Reproduction -- VIII. Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 12. Insect Hormones and Antihormones in Plants -- I. Introduction -- II. Biology and Chemistry of the Juvenile Hormones -- III. Phytojuvenile Hormones -- IV. Antijuvenile Hormones from Plants -- V. Phytoecdysones -- VI. Conclusions -- References -- Subject Index.
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Cambridge :Harvard University Press,
    Keywords: Electronic books.
    Description / Table of Contents: In the Middle Ages, enormously popular bestiaries presented people with descriptions of rare and unusual animals, typically paired with a moral or religious lesson. Entomologist May Berenbaum and illustrator Jay Hosler draw on the powerful cultural symbols of these antiquated books to create a beautiful and witty bestiary of the insect world.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (209 pages)
    Edition: 1st ed.
    ISBN: 9780674053564
    DDC: 595.7
    Language: English
    Note: Intro -- The Beasts (Contents) -- The Aerodynamically Unsound Bumble Bee -- The Brain-Boring Earwig -- The California Tongue Cockroach -- The Domesticated Crab Louse -- The Extinction-Prevention Bee -- The Filter-Lens Fly -- The Genetically Modified Frankenbug -- The Headless Cockroach -- The Iraqi Camel Spider -- The Jumping Face Bug -- The Kissing Bug -- The "Locust" -- The Mate-Eating Mantis -- The Nuclear Cockroach -- The Olympian Flea -- The Prognosticating Woollyworm -- The Queen Bee -- The Right-Handed Ant -- The Sex-Enhancing Spanishfly -- The Toilet Spider -- The Unslakable Mosquito -- The Venomous Daddylonglegs -- The Wing-Flapping Chaos Butterfly -- The X-ray-Induced Giant Insect -- The Yogurt Beetle -- The Zapper Bug -- References -- Acknowledgments -- Index.
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  • 3
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Oxford :CAB International,
    Keywords: Genetic transcription. ; Electronic books.
    Description / Table of Contents: This is the first book on the cutting-edge field of transcriptomics and its applications in entomology.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (216 pages)
    Edition: 1st ed.
    ISBN: 9781789243154
    DDC: 572.8845
    Language: English
    Note: Intro -- Half-title Page -- Title Page -- Copyright -- Contents -- Contributors -- Preface by the Editor -- 1. Harnessing Transcriptomics to Study Insect Biology -- 2. From Reads to Genes -- 3. Transcriptomics in Pest Management Research -- 4. Aphid Transcriptomics - Past, Present and Future -- 5. Transcriptomic Research on Honey Bee-Associated Pathogens -- 6. Cytochrome P450s in the Era of Transcriptomics -- 7. Whole-Body Transcriptome of the Douglas-Fir Seed Chalcid, Megastigmus spermotrophus, Reveals Ecological and Evolutionary Insights -- 8. Differential Transcriptome Profiling for Identification of Cellulose Degrading Enzymes in Ctenolepisma longicaudata -- 9. Using RNA-seq to Help Identify Functions in Unknown Organs -- 10. A Practical Guide for Functional Transcriptomics: A Case Study in RNA Interference and qPCR to Understand the Explosive Chemistry of Brachinus Bombardier Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) -- Index -- Backcover.
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  • 4
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    San Diego :Elsevier Science & Technology,
    Keywords: Herbivores--Evolution. ; Electronic books.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (506 pages)
    Edition: 2nd ed.
    ISBN: 9780080925455
    DDC: 574.5/3
    Language: English
    Note: Front Cover -- Herbivores: Their Interactions with Secondary Plant Metabolites -- Copyright Page -- Table of Contents -- Contributors -- Contributors -- Preface -- Chapter 1. The Evolution of Chemical Ecology: Contributions from the Study of Herbivorous Insects -- I. Introduction -- II. Plant Chemistry and Herbivores -- III. Herbivores and Plant Chemistry -- IV. Concluding Remarks -- References -- Chapter 2. Behavioral Responses of Insects to Plant Secondary Compounds -- I. Introduction -- II. The Insect: Internal Factors Influencing Behavior -- III. Sources of Plant Stimuli Influencing Insect Behavior -- IV. Insect Behavioral Reactions to Plant Compounds -- V. Future Research Topics -- References -- Chapter 3. How Animals Perceive Secondary Plant Compounds -- I. Introduction -- II. Chemosensory Systems Structure and Location -- III. Chemosensory Coding of Information -- IV. Emerging Views of Chemosensory Transduction -- V. The Dynamics of Chemosensory Cells at the Molecular Level -- VI. Secondary Plant Compound Actions on Chemosensory Cells -- VII. Emerging Trends and Future Directions -- References -- Chapter 4. Allelochemical- Nutrient Interactions in Herbivore Nutritional Ecology -- I. Introduction -- II. Herbivore Exposure to Allelochemicals and Nutrients -- III. Allelochemical-Nutrient Interactions -- IV. Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 5. Metabolic Defenses against Plant Allelochemicals -- I. Eating and Not Dying -- II. Defenses against Toxic Plant Allelochemicals -- III. Metabolic Fates of Foreign Compounds -- IV. Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Enzymes -- V. Microsomal Polysubstrate Monooxygenases -- VI. Other Oxidative Metabolism -- VII. Reductive Metabolism -- VIII. Hydrolytic Enzymes -- IX. Group Transfer Enzymes -- X. ß-Cyanoalanine Synthase -- XI. Conclusions -- References. , Chapter 6. Third Trophic Level Influences of Plant Allelochemicals -- I. Introduction -- II. Production Offered to Herbivores by Plants -- III. Beneficial Influences of Plants on the Third Trophic Level -- IV. Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 7. Microbial Mediation of Plant-Herbivore Ecology -- I. Introduction -- II. Conceptual Issues -- III. Examples and Mechanisms of Microbially Mediated Plant-Herbivore Interactions -- IV. Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 8. Phototoxins in Plant-Insect Interactions -- I. Introduction -- II. Distribution of Phototoxins in the Plant Kingdom -- III. Photochemical Mode of Action of Phototoxins -- IV. Light and Phototoxic Plants -- V. Effects of Phototoxins on Insects -- VI. Coevolution of Phototoxic Plants and Insects -- VII. Recent Developments in the Study of Insects Adapted to Phototoxic Hosts -- VIII. Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 9. Woody Plant-Mammal Interactions -- I. Introduction -- II. Ontogeny and Sex -- III. Evolutionary Responses to Resource Limitation and Disturbance -- IV. Phenotypic Responses to Nutrient- and Light-Limitation -- V. Phenotypic Responses to Browsing -- VI. Modes of Chemical Defense against Mammals -- VII. Learning as a Counter to Plant Toxins -- VIII. Concluding Remarks -- References -- Chapter 10. The Chemical Ecology of Plant-Herbivore Interactions in Marine versus Terrestrial Communities -- I. The Plants -- II. The Herbivores -- III. Feeding Specificity of Marine versus Terrestrial Herbivores -- IV. Grazing Rates and Selection for Plant Defenses -- V. Seaweed Chemical Defenses -- VI. The Plant-Apparency and Resource-Availability Models -- VII. The Spatial-Variation-in-Herbivory Model -- VIII. Costs of Seaweed Chemical Defenses -- IX. What Selects for Resistance to Plant Chemical Defenses? -- X. What Selects for or against Feeding Specialization? -- XI. Summary. , References -- Chapter 11. Genetics of Secondary Metabolism and Herbivore Resistance in Plants -- I. Introduction -- II. Intraspecific Variation in Plant Metabolism Is under Genetic Control -- III. Intraspecific Differences in Plant Resistance to Herbivores Are under Genetic Control -- IV. Genetically Based Resistance to Herbivores Is Attributable to Intraspecific Differences in Plant Secondary Metabolism -- V. Selective Responses of Plants to Herbivory -- VI. Intraspecific Differences in Herbivore Performance on Plant Hosts Are under Genetic Control -- VII. Constraints on Herbivore Responses to Plant Chemistry -- VIII. Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 12. Evolution and Coevolution of Plants and Phytophagous Arthropods -- I. The Conceptual Background of Studies in Plant-Herbivore Coevolution -- II. The Major Questions -- III. Concluding Comments -- References -- Subject Index.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The spread of HIV-1 in Africa is examined here in the light of recent information on the main epidemiological and behavioural determinants of transmission. Mathematical models incorporating demographic, epidemiological and behavioural processes are used to assess the potential demographic impact of ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-16
    Description: We determine the degree of denitrification that occurred during the 1996-1997 Arctic winter using a technique that is based on balloon and aircraft borne measurements of NOy, N2O, and CH4. The NOy/N2O relation can undergo significant change due to isentropic mixing of subsided vortex air masses with extravortex air due to the high nonlinearity of the relation. These transport related reductions in NOy can be difficult to distinguish from the effects of denitrification caused by sedimentation of condensed HNO3. In this study, high-altitude balloon measurements are used to define the properties of air masses that later descend in the polar vortex to altitudes sampled by the ER-2 aircraft (i.e., ~20 km) and mix isentropically with extravortex air. Observed correlations of CH4 and N2O are used to quantify the degree of subsidence and mixing for individual air masses. On the basis of these results the expected mixing ratio of NOy resulting from subsidence and mixing, defined here as NOy**, is calculated and compared with the measured mixing ratio of NOy. Values of NOy and NOy** agree well during most parts of the flights. A slight deficit of NOy versus NOy** is found only for a limited region during the ER-2 flight on April 26, 1997. This deficit is interpreted as indication for weak denitrification (~2-3 ppbv) in that air mass. The small degree of denitrification is consistent with the general synoptic-scale temperature history of the sampled air masses, which did not encounter temperatures below the frostpoint and had relatively brief encounters with temperatures below the nitric acid trihydrate equilibrium temperature. Much larger degrees of denitrification would have been inferred if mixing effects had been ignored, which is the traditional approach to diagnose denitrification. Our analysis emphasizes the importance of using other correlations of conserved species to be able to accurately interpret changes in the NOy/N2O relation with respect to denitrification.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , isiRev
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  • 7
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    Unknown
    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/26771 | 25026 | 2019-09-12 02:06:00 | 26771 | National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Philippines
    Publication Date: 2021-07-24
    Description: Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758) known as the blue swimming crab, ranks 4th major fishery export of the Philippines. The Visayan Sea is considered as the major crab fishing ground of the country to which 25 out of 53 crab picking stations are located in Region 6. The study was conducted in the year 2011 to 2012 in ten crab fishing municipalities of the Western Visayan Sea conducting catch and effort, reproductive biology, and biological sampling. Results showed that a decreasing CPUE is observed compared in 1995 at 0.34 kg/ panel to 0.19 kg/panel in 2011 and 0.26 kg/panel in 2012, with 17 to 20 gillnet-panels per boat per day. Surplus production models showed that MSY at 13,150 MT and fMSY at 19,473 gillnet-panels of the Fox model is achieved prior to the year 1999. In 2011 and 2012, yield decreases as a setback of increasing fishing effort. Population parameters results showed growth overfishing where the L∞ value obtained at 19.10 cm for this study was lower compared to 19.95 to 21.77 cm in previous studies. Computed E value at 0.68year-1 is higher than the threshold at E = 0.5year-1 and at optimum E10 = 0.56year-1. Recruitment overfishing is also apparent from the size catches of major crab fishing gears to length at first maturity of 11.5 cm. Bottomset gillnet catches premature sizes by 57%, crab pot by 62%, and otter trawl by 95%. Seasonality of crab catching peaks in July and January coincides with the peak spawning in August and January, and recruitment in October and January.
    Keywords: Conservation ; Fisheries ; Policies ; Portunus pelagicus ; exploitation ; length at first maturity ; crab pot ; crab bottomset gillnet
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: article
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: 77-94
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 94 (1991), S. 4521-4531 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Small-angle neutron scattering experiments at various contrasts were performed on concentrated mixtures of colloidal spheres differing in size. Both colloidal components consisted of fairly monodisperse silica cores coated with a layer of octadecyl chains. Cyclohexane was used as dispersing medium; variation of the contrast was achieved by using mixtures of 1H -cyclohexane and 2H -cyclohexane. Scattered intensities were measured at three volume fractions up to 0.4, at equal partial volume fractions. The different contrast dependence of the scattering amplitudes of both colloids allowed us to calculate partial structure factors. This was done using a method which has not been reported previously. Describing the intraparticle structures with layered-sphere models, and using a decoupling approximation, three partials were obtained from a system of linear equations. The scattering curves at the various contrasts constitute a consistent data set, at all volume fractions. Although the separate components interact like hard spheres, the partial structure factors in the mixture reflect marked deviations from hard-sphere behavior. Their nature can be qualitatively explained with an attractive interaction between unequal particles. This is confirmed with simple model calculations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Langmuir 7 (1991), S. 62-68 
    ISSN: 1520-5827
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Langmuir 4 (1988), S. 668-676 
    ISSN: 1520-5827
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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