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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Newark :American Geophysical Union,
    Keywords: Ocean circulation. ; Electronic books.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (217 pages)
    Edition: 1st ed.
    ISBN: 9781118847251
    Series Statement: Geophysical Monograph Series
    DDC: 551.46138
    Language: English
    Note: Intro -- The Mediterranean Sea: Temporal Variability and Spatial Patterns, Geophysical Monograph 202 -- Copyright -- Contents -- Contributors -- Preface -- 1 Introduction to The Mediterranean Sea: Temporal Variability and Spatial Patterns -- References -- 2 Spatiotemporal Variability of the Surface Circulation in the Western Mediterranean: A Comparative Study Using Altimetry and Modeling -- 2.1. Introduction -- 2.2. Data and Methods -- 2.2.1. Data -- 2.2.2. Methods -- 2.3. Results -- 2.3.1. Mean Surface Circulation -- 2.3.2. Eddy Kinetic Energy -- 2.3.3. Surface Circulation Variability Using EOFs -- 2.4. Summary and Discussion -- References -- 3 Exchange Flow through the Strait of Gibraltar as Simulated by a σ-Coordinate Hydrostatic Model and a z-Coordinate Nonhydrostatic Model -- 3.1. Introduction -- 3.2. Models Description and Initialization -- 3.2.1. POM -- 3.2.2. MITgcm -- 3.3. Models Validation -- 3.4. Results -- 3.4.1. Internal Bore Evolution -- 3.4.2. Three-layer definition and properties -- 3.4.3. Hydraulics -- 3.4.4. Sensitivity Experiments -- 3.5. Discussion and Conclusion -- References -- 4 Mixing in the Deep Waters of the Western Mediterranean -- 4.1. Introduction -- 4.2. Evolution of the Deep Waters -- 4.3. Mixing Estimates -- 4.4. Mixing Processes -- 4.5. Discussion -- References -- 5 The 2009 Surface and Intermediate Circulation of the Tyrrhenian Sea as Assessed by an Operational Model -- 5.1. Introduction -- 5.2. Model Description -- 5.2.1. The Numerical Model -- 5.2.2. Boundary Conditions and Hindcast Procedure -- 5.3. The Seasonal Variability of the Circulation During 2009 -- 5.3.1. The Surface Circulation -- 5.3.2. The Intermediate Circulation -- 5.4. Water Masses and Transports -- 5.5. Summary -- Appendix -- References -- 6 The Eastern Mediterranean Transient: Evidence for Similar Events Previously? -- 6.1. Introduction. , 6.2. Lessons from the Actual EMT -- 6.3. Historic T-S Signatures in Comparison with Potential Effects of EMT-Type Events -- 6.4. Discussion and Conclusion -- References -- 7 Deep-Water Variability and Interbasin Interactions in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea -- 7.1. Introduction -- 7.2. Methodology -- 7.3. Basinwide and Interbasin Variability -- 7.4. Intrabasin Variability -- 7.5. Simple Statistics -- 7.6. Discussion and Conclusions -- References -- 8 An Internal Mechanism Driving the Alternation of the Eastern Mediterranean Dense/Deep Water Sources -- 8.1. Introduction -- 8.2. Datasets and Model Description -- 8.2.1. Data Series -- 8.2.2. Model Description -- 8.2.3. Atmospheric Forcing -- 8.2.4. River Discharge Data -- 8.2.5. Boundary Conditions -- 8.2.6. Model Run -- 8.3. Results and Discussion -- 8.3.1. Evolution of the Hydrological Characteristics -- 8.3.2. Evolution of the Atmospheric Forcing -- 8.3.3. Salinity Lateral Redistribution -- 8.3.4. The Role of Lateral Advection -- 8.3.5. Flows through Straits-Salinity and Heat -- 8.4. Summary and Conclusions -- References -- 9 Thermohaline Variability and Mesoscale Dynamics Observed at the Deep-Ocean Observatory E2M3A in the Southern Adriatic Sea -- 9.1. Introduction -- 9.2. Datasets and Methods -- 9.3. Results -- 9.3.1. Thermohaline Variability in the Southern Adriatic between 2006 and 2010 -- 9.3.2. Heat and Salt Content Changes -- 9.3.3. Dense Water Formation Episodes Observed at the E2M3A Site -- 9.3.4. On the Relationship between Thermodynamic Forcing and Current Excitation: Identification of Eddylike Patterns -- 9.4. Conclusions -- References -- Index -- Supplemental Images.
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    San Diego :Elsevier Science & Technology,
    Keywords: Climatic changes - Mediterranean Region. ; Electronic books.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (438 pages)
    Edition: 1st ed.
    ISBN: 9780080460796
    Series Statement: Issn Series ; v.Volume 4
    DDC: 551.691822
    Language: English
    Note: Cover -- Abridged Contents -- Contents -- Preface -- The Mediterranean Climate: An Overview of the Main Characteristics and Issues -- The Mediterranean Region: Climate and Characteristics -- Regional Processes and Links to the Global Climate -- Climate Trends and Change at Regional Scale -- Socio-environmental Aspects -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Mediterranean Climate Variability over the Last Centuries: A Review -- Introduction -- Past Regional Mediterranean Climate Evidence and Extremes -- Evidence from Early Instrumental and Documentary Data -- Iberian Peninsula -- France -- Italy -- Southern Balkans, Greece and Eastern Mediterranean -- Northern Africa -- Ship Logbooks as a New Documentary Proxy for Past Mediterranean Climate -- Evidence from Natural Proxies -- Tree-Ring Information from the Iberian Peninsula and Italy -- Tree-Ring Information from South Eastern Europe and Eastern Mediterranean -- Tree-Ring Information from Northern Africa -- Speleothems -- Corals -- Evidence from Lower Resolution Natural Proxies and New Marine Archives -- Subsurface temperature information in the Mediterranean from borehole data -- Mediterranean sea temperatures and sea-water chemistry derived from Vermetids, non--tropical, and deep-sea corals -- Large-Scale Climate Reconstructions and Importance of Proxy Data for the Mediterranean -- Mediterranean Winter Temperature and Precipitation Variability over the Last 500 Years -- Connection between the Large-Scale Atmospheric Circulation and Mediterranean Winter Climate over the Last Centuries -- Major Atmospheric Circulation Patterns Associated with Mediterranean Winter Climate Anomalies -- Mediterranean Climate Variability since the Mid-Seventeenth Century in Terms of Large-Scale Circulation Dynamics. , Running Correlation Analysis between the Large-Scale Atmospheric Circulation and Mediterranean Winter Climate over the Last Centuries -- Teleconnection Studies with Other Parts of the Northern Hemisphere -- Mediterranean Winter Temperature and Precipitation Reconstructions in Comparison with the ECHO-G and HadCM3 Coupled Models -- Past Climate Variability and its Relations to Volcanism, Solar Activity and GHG Concentrations: Reconstructions and Models -- Conclusions -- Outlook -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Relations between Climate Variability in the Mediterranean Region and the Tropics: ENSO, South Asian and African Monsoons, Hurricanes and Saharan Dust -- Introduction -- ENSO Impact on the Mediterranean Climate -- ENSO and Eastern Mediterranean (EM) Rainfall -- ENSO and the Western Mediterranean Relationship -- ENSO and Extreme Mediterranean Rainfall -- Transient and Stationary Waves Approach -- Possible Coupling Mechanism of ENSO and the Mediterranean -- South Asian Monsoon Variability and the Mediterranean Climate -- Mediterranean Climate and South Asian Rainfall -- African Monsoon Impact on the Climate of the Mediterranean -- Tropical Cyclones' Impact on the Mediterranean Climate -- Tropical Intrusions into the Mediterranean Basin -- Mediterranean Dust Transport from Sahara -- Conclusions and Outlook -- Future Research on ENSO Impact on Mediterranean Climate -- Future Research on South Asian Monsoon Variability and the Mediterranean Climate -- Future Research on African Monsoon Impacts on the Climate of the Mediterranean -- Future Research on Tropical Intrusions into the Mediterranean Basin -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Relations between Variability in the Mediterranean Region and Mid-Latitude Variability -- Introduction -- Mid-Latitude Modes of Atmospheric Variability and their Impact -- The North Atlantic Oscillation Pattern. , The Eastern Atlantic and Eastern Atlantic/Western Russia Patterns -- The Scandinavian and Blocking Patterns -- Other Modes -- Temperature Variability -- Precipitation Variability -- Trends -- Temperature Trends -- Precipitation Trends -- Contributing Factors for Observed Temperature and Precipitation™Trends -- Other Important Forcing Factors -- Tropical and Extratropical SST -- Solar Variability -- Future Outlook -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Changes in the Oceanography of the Mediterranean Sea and their Link to Climate Variability -- Introduction -- The Forcing of the Mediterranean Sea -- Air& -- ndash -- Sea Interaction -- River Outflow -- Exchanges through the Strait of Gibraltar -- The Exchange with the Black Sea -- The Mediterranean Overturning Circulation -- The Modification of the Atlantic Inflow -- Intermediate Water Formation -- Deep Water Formation in the Eastern Mediterranean -- Deep Water Formation in the Western Mediterranean -- Climatic Changes in the Mediterranean Sea Circulation -- Multidecadal Trends in Water Mass Characteristics -- Rapid Changes: The Eastern Mediterranean Transient -- What Caused the EMT? -- mk4004sec16sec16 -- Where did the Deep Water Formation Take Place? -- How Much Deep Water was Produced by the EMT? -- Why did the EMT Happen? -- The Impact of Large-Scale Atmospheric Variability on the Mediterranean Sea -- Sea Level Changes in the Mediterranean Sea -- Extreme Sea Levels -- Changes in the Wind-wave Field -- Outlook and Future Challenges -- Acknowledgements -- References -- The Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea as Connected Systems -- Introduction -- Mediterranean Outflow vs. Mediterranean Internal Variability -- Description of Numerical Model -- Zonal and Meridional Cells -- Mean State and Variability -- Timescales of Mediterranean Thermohaline Circulation -- Decadal Oscillations in the Mediterranean Sea. , The Strait of Gibraltar: A Gate to the Atlantic -- Spreading of Mediterranean Outflow Water in the North Atlantic -- Dynamics of Mediterranean Outflow Water -- mk4005sec11asec11a -- Meddies -- Mediterranean Undercurrent -- Mediterranean Outflow Water and Stability and Variability of™Meridional Overturning Circulation -- Modelling of Mediterranean Outflow Water -- mk4005sec15asec15a -- Simplified Models -- General Circulation Model Studies -- Discussion and Future Challenges -- References -- Cyclones in the Mediterranean Region: Climatology and Effects on the Environment -- Introduction -- & -- ldquo -- Historical& -- rdquo -- Notes -- Mediterranean Cyclones: Data, Methods and Dynamics -- Dynamics of Cyclones in the Mediterranean Region -- Available Sets of Data -- Methodology -- Climatology of Cyclones in the Mediterranean -- Characteristics, Sub-Areas of Cyclogenesis, Seasonality and™Generation™Mechanisms -- The Role of Large-Scale Climate Patterns on the Mediterranean™Cyclones -- Trends -- Weather Patterns and Mediterranean Environment -- Precipitation -- Strong Winds -- Storm Surge -- Wind Waves -- Landslides -- Conclusions -- Outlook -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Regional Atmospheric, Marine Processes and Climate Modelling -- Introduction -- Teleconnection Patterns from the Mediterranean Region -- Mediterranean Thermohaline Circulation and its Sensitivity to Atmospheric Forcing -- Sensitivity of the Mediterranean Thermohaline Circulation to Anthropogenic Global Warming -- Current Status of Mediterranean Regional Climate Modelling -- Atmosphere-Sea Coupled Modelling -- Perspectives and Outlooks -- High-Resolution Mediterranean Climate Modelling Systems -- Development and Validation of Integrated Regional Modelling Systems -- Acknowledgements -- References -- The Mediterranean Climate Change under Global Warming -- Introduction. , Global-Coupled Climate Models -- Regional Climate Scenarios -- Statistical Downscaling -- RCM Simulations -- AGCM Simulations with Variable Resolution -- Impacts on Land Surface and Vegetation -- Future Research -- References -- Subject Index.
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  • 3
    Keywords: Oceans Dynamics ; Ocean-atmosphere interaction Congresses ; Dynamic climatology Congresses ; Ocean-atmosphere interaction Congresses ; Dynamic climatology Congresses ; Konferenzschrift 1993 ; Konferenzschrift ; Mittelmeerraum ; Dynamische Meteorologie ; Meer ; Dynamisches Modell
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: XXII, 437 S. , Ill., graph. Darst., Kt.
    ISBN: 0792326245
    Series Statement: NATO ASI series 419
    DDC: 551.5246
    RVK:
    Language: English
    Note: Literaturangaben
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  • 4
    Keywords: Oceanography Mathematical models ; Meereskunde ; Mathematisches Modell
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: XII, 455 S , graph. Darst., Kt
    ISBN: 0444820795 , 0444824847
    Series Statement: Elsevier oceanography series 61
    DDC: 551.460015118
    Language: English
    Note: Literaturangaben
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  • 5
    Keywords: Konferenzschrift ; Meeresströmung
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: 366 S , graph. Darst., Kt
    ISBN: 8886166109
    Series Statement: Environmental dynamics series 3
    Language: English
    Note: Literaturan
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  • 6
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    San Diego :Elsevier Science & Technology,
    Keywords: Atlantic Coast (South Africa) -- Environmental conditions -- Forecasting. ; Electronic books.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (438 pages)
    Edition: 1st ed.
    ISBN: 9780080476049
    Series Statement: Issn Series ; v.Volume 14
    Language: English
    Note: Cover -- Title Page -- Copyright Page -- Table of Contents -- Series Editor's introduction -- Ministers' page: Towards forecasting a changing ocean: An African Perspective -- Sponsorship page -- Foreword -- List of contributors -- PART I: BY WAY OF INTRODUCTION -- Chapter 1. A plan comes together -- UNIQUE ENVIRONMENT -- TEN YEARS OF CLOSE REGIONAL COLLABORATION -- OBSERVING AND PREDICTING IN THE BCLME WITHIN THE INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT -- FAST-TRACKING THE DEVELOPMENT OF A REGIONAL OBSERVING SYSTEM AND PREDICTIVE CAPABILITY -- ABOUT THIS BOOK -- ACKNOWLEDGEMENT -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 2. Forecasting within the context of Large Marine Ecosystem Programs -- LME DEFINITION: DELINEATION AND MAJOR STRESSORS -- LME INDICATOR MODULES -- APPLICATION OF INDICATOR MODULES TO LME MANAGEMENT SUPPORTED BY THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT FACILITY (GEF) -- SCIENCE-BASED ASSESSMENTS OF LME BIOMASS YIELDS -- RECOVERING FISHERIES BIOMASS -- LME MODELING AND DRIVING FORCES OF CHANGE -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 3. The Global Ocean Observing System for Africa (GOOS Africa): Monitoring and Predicting in Large Marine Ecosystems -- INTRODUCTION -- THE LARGE MARINE ECOSYSTEM (LME) CONCEPT AND STRATEGY -- THE RISE OF THE GLOBAL OCEAN OBSERVING SYSTEM IN AFRICA (GOOS-AFRICA) -- GOOS-AFRICA STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIPS -- THE AFRICAN LMES ARE CORE AND VITAL STRATEGIC PARTNERS FOR GOOS-AFRICA -- GOOS-AFRICA CONTRIBUTION TO INTEGRATED MONITORING AND PREDICTING OF LARGE MARINE ECOSYSTEMS -- CONCLUDING REMARKS: SUCCESS STORIES -- GOOS-AFRICA FORWARD LOOK -- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS -- PART II: SETTING THE SCENE -- Chapter 4. Large scale physical variability of the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem (BCLME) -- INTRODUCTION -- MAJOR PHYSICAL PROCESSES IN THE BCLME -- ATMOSPHERIC FORCING OF THE BCLME -- LARGE SCALE MODES OF VARIABILITY -- WATER MASSES AND VERTICAL STRUCTURE OF THE BCLME. , NUMERICAL OCEAN MODELLING IN THE BCLME -- SCHEMATIC CIRCULATION DEDUCED FROM A NUMERICAL MODEL -- NUMERICAL MODELLING OF THE PHYSICAL PROCESSES IN THE BCLME -- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 5. Low oxygen water (LOW) variability in the Benguela system: Key processes and forcing scales relevant to forecasting -- INTRODUCTION -- SYNTHESIS OF SYSTEM PROCESSES AND VARIABILITY -- REMOTE FORCING: EASTERN TROPICAL SOUTHEAST ATLANTIC (ETSA - BENGUELA LINKAGE) -- BENGUELA SHELF VARIABILITY -- PROCESSES REQUIRING DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT -- PROCESSES WITH FORECASTING POTENTIAL -- WHAT ARE THE GAPS? -- SUMMARY -- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 7. The variability and potential for prediction of harmful algal blooms in the southern Benguela ecosystem -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- THE SPATIAL [GEOGRAPHIC] DISTRIBUTION OF HABS -- SEASONAL INCIDENCE OF HABS -- THE TIMING OF HABS: ACROSS-SHELF AND ALONGSHORE TRANSPORT -- CONCLUSION: THE POTENTIAL FOR PREDICTION -- Chapter 8. Resource and ecosystem variability, including regime shifts, in the Benguela Current system -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- RESOURCE VARIABILITY -- ECOSYSTEM VARIABILITY -- PREDICTING VARIABILITY -- MAKING PREDICTIONS -- A WAY FORWARD -- CONCLUSIONS -- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS -- Chapter 6. Variability of plankton with reference to fish variability in the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem - An overview -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- EVENT-SCALE VARIABILITY -- SEASONAL CHANGES -- INTERANNUAL AND DECADAL CHANGES -- CONCLUSIONS -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 9. Modelling, forecasting and scenarios in comparable upwelling ecosystems --California, Canary, Humboldt -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- PHYSICS -- ECOLOGY -- TELECONNECTIONS BETWEEN ECOSYSTEMS -- CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER GENERAL THOUGHTS -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- PART III: HOPES, DREAMS AND REALITY. , Chapter 10. Influences of large scale climate modes and Agulhas system variability on the BCLME region -- INTRODUCTION -- ATMOSPHERIC VARIABILITY OF THE BCLME REGION -- BENGUELA NIÑOS AND SST VARIABILITY IN THE TROPICAL EASTERN ATLANTIC OCEAN -- INFLUENCE OF VARIABILITY IN THE SOUTHERN AGULHAS SYSTEM ON THE BCLME REGION -- SUMMARY -- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS -- Chapter 11. Developing a basis for detecting and predicting long-term ecosystem changes -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- ECOSYSTEM CHANGES TO BE MONITORED -- APPROPRIATE ECOSYSTEM INDICATORS AND MODELS -- DESIRED END PRODUCTS AND DATA REQUIREMENTS -- SCHEDULE FOR IMPLEMENTATION -- CONCLUSIONS -- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS -- Chapter 12. The requirements for forecasting harmful algal blooms in the Benguela -- INTRODUCTION -- PHYSICAL-BIOLOGICAL COUPLINGS UNDERLYING HABS -- IDENTIFICATION OF THE PHYSICAL PROCESSES IMPORTANT TO BLOOM CONCENTRATION AND TRANSPORT -- REAL-TIME OBSERVATION OF HABS -- NUMERICAL MODELLING AND PREDICTION OF HAB DYNAMICS -- CONCLUSIONS -- Chapter 13. Low oxygen water (LOW) forcing scales amenable to forecasting in the Benguela ecosystem -- INTRODUCTION -- SCALES OF LOW VARIABILITY AMENABLE TO FORECASTING -- REMOTE EQUATORIAL FORCING: 2 MONTH FORECASTING SCALE -- SHELF SCALE FORCING: 7 DAY FORECASTING SCALE -- IMPORTANCE OF COUPLED MECHANISMS -- OBSERVATIONAL PROGRAMME -- SUMMARY -- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS -- Chapter 14. Forecasting shelf processes of relevance to living marine resources in the BCLME -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- LOW OXYGEN WATER EVENTS -- MESOSCALE PROCESSES -- BOUNDARY PROCESSES -- OTHER SHELF PROCESSES -- DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS -- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 15. Environmental data requirements of maritime operations in the Benguela coastal ocean -- INTRODUCTION -- OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION NEEDS -- DIAMOND MINING -- SHIPPING -- PORTS. , FISHING -- SOVEREIGNTY AND RESOURCE PROTECTION -- MARITIME FORECASTING IN SUPPORT OF RISK MANAGEMENT -- SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION -- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS -- PART IV: THE WAY AHEAD -- Chapter 16. Towards a future integrated forecast system -- SUMMARY -- INTRODUCTION -- CANDIDATE PREDICTIVE CAPABILITIES FOR THE BCLME -- SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS FOR THE CANDIDATE PREDICTIVE CAPABILITIES -- CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS -- Chapter 17. Forecasting a large marine ecosystem -- SUMMARY -- INTRODUCTION -- MODELLING PRACTICE IN THE 21ST CENTURY -- SHORT-TERM LME FORECASTING -- MEDIUM-TERM LME FORECASTING -- LONG-TERM LME FORECASTING -- WHAT-IF? PREDICTION -- A VISION OF THE FUTURE -- Index -- Large Marine Ecosystems Series.
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  • 7
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: S. 1073 - 1332 , Ill., graph. Darst., Kt
    Series Statement: Deep sea research 40,6
    Language: English
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  • 8
    Keywords: Ocean circulation Atlantic Ocean ; Ocean-atmosphere interaction Atlantic Ocean ; Ocean circulation Atlantic Ocean ; Ocean-atmosphere interaction Atlantic Ocean ; Aufsatzsammlung ; Atlantischer Ozean ; Meeresströmung ; Atmosphäre
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: XV, 506 S. , Ill., graph. Darst.
    ISBN: 0444512675
    Series Statement: Elsevier oceanography series 68
    DDC: 551.46213
    RVK:
    Language: English
    Note: Includes bibliographical references and index
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  • 9
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    Unknown
    Elsevier
    In:  Ocean Modelling, 7 (1-2). pp. 145-163.
    Publication Date: 2020-10-16
    Description: An idealized numerical model of the tropical Atlantic Ocean is used to study the structure, energetics and heat flux of the Atlantic tropical instability waves (TIWs). The model results compare well with the observations, and they both show that, unlike commonly assumed, the TIWs in the Atlantic exist on both sides of the equator and are generated not only in the summer but from May to January. Furthermore it is demonstrated that the Atlantic TIWs are generated by barotropic instability of the shear between the equatorial undercurrent and the northern south equatorial current and make a surprisingly small contribution to the heat budget of the equatorial mixed layer. The model results reveal that the often published strong meridional heat flux divergence of the TIWs is largely compensated for by their vertical heat flux divergence.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 10
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