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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Basel :S. Karger AG,
    Keywords: Electronic books.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (203 pages)
    Edition: 1st ed.
    ISBN: 9783318011746
    Series Statement: Chemical Immunology and Allergy Series ; v.86
    Language: English
    Note: Cover -- Contents -- Preface -- Antimicrobial Peptides: Basic Features and Clinical Relevance -- Antimicrobial Peptides in Drosophila: Structures, Activities and Gene Regulation -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Drosophila Defensin, An Anti-Gram-Positive Peptide -- The Antifungal Drosomycin -- Antifungal Peptide -- Metchnikowin, A Cysteine-Free Drosophila Antifungal Peptide -- Cecropins, alpha-Helical Peptides Largely Distributed in Higher Insect Orders -- Drosocin, An Anti-Gram-Negative O-Glycopeptide -- Diptericin, An Anti-Gram-Negative O-Glycopeptide -- Attacins, Large Polypeptides with Antibacterial Properties -- MPAC, the Drosophila Attacin C Pro-Domain with Antibacterial Properties -- Rel Proteins Control Expression of Antimicrobial Peptide Genes -- The Toll and IMD Pathways Control Inducible Expression of AMP Genes -- Other Signaling Pathways Activated during the Drosophila Immune Response -- Hemocytes in the Drosophila Immune Response -- Epithelial Responses in Drosophila -- Concluding Remarks -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Antimicrobial Peptides in Human Skin -- Abstract -- Introduction -- beta-Defensins -- Human beta-Defensin-2 -- Human beta-Defensin-3 -- Human beta-Defensin-1 -- Human beta-Defensin-4 -- Cathelicidin LL-37 -- Serine Protease Inhibitors Antileukoprotease and Elafin -- Dermcidin -- Adrenomedullin -- Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin -- RNase 7 -- Skin Disease Implications -- Conclusion -- References -- Human Defensins in Crohn's Disease -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Epidemiology: The Role of Hygiene -- Pathophysiology: The Role of Luminal and Mucosal Bacteria -- Defensin Expression and Regulation in the Healthy Intestinal Tract -- Defensins and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases -- NOD2, A Peptidoglycan Receptor and Defensin Expression -- Toll-Like Receptors and Their Expression in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. , Therapy: The Role of Antibiotics and Probiotics -- Concluding Remarks -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Antimicrobial Peptides in Lung Inflammation -- Abstract -- Introduction -- AMPs Are Expressed in the Respiratory Tract -- Host Defense in the Airways -- AMPs in the Human Lung -- Regulation of the AMPs in the Lung -- Functions of AMPs in the Respiratory Tract -- Antimicrobial Activity -- Inflammation, Angiogenesis, and Cell Function -- Role of AMPs in Pulmonary Disease -- Pneumonia and Tuberculosis -- Cystic Fibrosis and Diffuse Panbronchiolitis -- Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease -- Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome -- Pulmonary Fibrosis and Sarcoidosis -- Conclusions -- Acknowledgement -- References -- Reciprocal Interactions of Host Cells and Microbes -- Bacterial Evasion of Innate Defense at Epithelial Linings -- Abstract -- How to Circumvent Physical Removal from Body Surfaces -- Overcome Space and Nutrient Deprivation -- Resisting the Low-pH Defense Barrier -- Avoid Protease Mediated Destruction and Opsonization -- Evade Recognition and Cell Activation -- Withstand Targeted Destruction -- Active Penetration of the Epithelial Cell Barrier -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Recognition of Bacterial Products by Toll-Like Receptors -- Abstract -- Mammalian Toll-Like Receptors and Their Ligands -- Extracellular Recognition of TLR Ligands -- TLR4 -- TLR2, TLR2/TLR1, and TLR2/TLR6 -- TLR10 -- TLR5 -- TLR11 -- Intracellular Recognition of TLR Ligands -- TLR3 -- TLR7/TLR8 -- TLR9 -- Conclusion -- References -- TLR Signalling and the Function of Dendritic Cells -- Abstract -- Introduction -- What Are Toll-Like Receptors? -- Toll-Like Receptors Recognize Various Molecules -- Signalling Pathway of TLRs -- MyD88-Dependent Pathway -- MyD88-Independent Pathway -- TIRAP/Mal -- TRIF -- TRAM -- The Role of TLR Family in the Host Defence. , TLRs Stimulate DCs to Induce T Cell Activation -- LPS-Stimulated MyD88-Deficient DCs -- DC Subset-Dependent Cytokine Production -- Conclusion -- References -- Contribution of T Cells to Epithelial Defense -- Immunosurveillance by gama/deltaT Cells: Focus on the Murine System -- Abstract -- TCRgamadelta+ Intraepithelial Lymphocytes -- Immunoprotective Roles of gamadelta T Cells in the Tissues -- Immunoregulatory Roles of Local gamadelta T Cells -- gamadelta+ T Cells and Tumor Surveillance -- gamadelta+ T Cell Regulation of Epithelial Malignancy -- From gamadelta Cell Biology in Mice to Immunosurveillance in Humans -- Immunological Mechanisms Highlighted by gamadelta Cells - Towards the Clinic -- References -- gamadelta T Cells Link Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Vgama9/Vdelta2 T Cells -- Vgama9/Vdelta2 T Cells Are Expanded by Various Microbes -- Vgama9/Vdelta2 T Cells Are Activated by Non-Peptide Antigens -- Non-Mevalonate Pathway Intermediates Are the Most Potent Vgama9/Vdelta2 Activators -- Alkylamines Activate Vgama9/Vdelta2 T Cells -- N-Bisphosphonates Stimulate Vgama9/Vdelta2 T Cells -- Vgama9/Vdelta2 T Cells Can Kill Bacteria within Hours after Activation -- The Vgama9/Vdelta2 TCR Repertoire Is Shaped by Non-Peptide Antigens -- Vgama9/Vdelta2 T Cells and Tumor Surveillance -- Activation of Vgama9/Vdelta2 T Cells as a Therapeutic Approach in Tumor Treatment: From Bench to Bedside -- Vdelta1 Cells -- Vdelta1 T Cells Are the Dominant gamma/delta T Cell Population at Mucosal Surfaces -- Vdelta1 T Cells Are Activated by MICA/B -- Vdelta1 T Cells Are Activated by Glycolipids Presented by CD1 -- Lipid Extracts from Gram-Negative Bacteria Indirectly Stimulate Vdelta1T Cells -- TCR Repertoire of Vdelta1 T Cells -- The Role of Vdelta1 T Cells in Microbial Infections -- The Role of Vdelta1 T Cells in Tumor Recognition. , Migration and Homing of gamma/delta T cells -- Chemokine Expression of Peripheral gamma/delta T cells -- gamma/delta T Cells Can Be Polarized into TH1/TH2 Cells -- Chemokine Expression of Mucosal gamma/delta T Cells -- gamma/delta T Cells Can Have Immunosuppressive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities -- Expression of Toll-Like Receptors -- Concluding Remarks -- References -- Author Index -- Subject Index -- A -- B -- C -- D -- E -- F -- G -- H -- I -- L -- M -- N -- P -- R -- S -- T -- Y.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Scandinavian journal of immunology 14 (1981), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The reactivity of rabbit anti-HLA-DR antigen antibodies with cells in normal and rheumatoid synovial tissue was investigated by indirect immunofluorescence on frozen sections of tissue. The antibodies reacted with a significant proportion of the synovial lining cells of both normal and rheumatoid synovial tissue, with endothelial cells, and with a number of, most probably, migratory cells. After dispersion of cells from rheumatoid synovial tissue by digestion with collagenase and DNase, adherent cells of both a macrophage-like and a dendritic appearance reacted with the anti-HLA-DR antigen antibodies. The adherent cells were also found to be potent stimulators in the allogeneic MLR. In addition, it was found that a high percentage of T lymphocytes from both peripheral blood and synovial tissue of rheumatoid patients bound anti-HLA-DR antibodies. The present data suggest a role for synovial lining cells in HLA-D-locus-dependent events of importance in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and other joint diseases and point to the need for further investigations on T lymphocytes derived from the site of inflammation in the study of rheumatoid arthritis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Scandinavian journal of immunology 13 (1981), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Separation of mouse rosette-forming cells (MRFC) was used as a technique to isolate T lymphocytes in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. The resulting interface fraction (non-MRFC) was highly enriched for sheep rosette-forming T cells (mean value 71.8% SRFC) as compared with unfractionated peripheral blood lymphoctes (mean value 18% SRFC). A higher degree of T-cell purity was achieved by this method than by the sheep rosette sedimentation technique in patients with leucocyte counts greater than 50 × 109/I. Functional tests revealed that depletion of MRFC increased not only phytohaemagglutinin and mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) reactivity but also the stimulatory capacity in the allogeneic MLC. In contrast, separation of MRFC in normal blood donors gave only a poor degree of separation and was not an effective means to isolate lymphocyte subpopulations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We investigated the in vitro responsiveness of peripheral blood lymphocytes from two patients with T-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (T-CLL) to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin (SE) superantigens. T-cell receptor (TcR) αβ(Vβ 7.1)-expressing CD4+ leukaemic T cells from patient HE (white blood cell count 480,000/μl) proliferated in response to SEA and, only at 1000-fold higher concentrations, to SEB, SED, and SEE. CD4+ CD8+ TcRαβ (Vβ 12.1)-expressing leukaemic T cells from patient KO (white blood cell count 120,000/μl) were activated by SEB but not by the other tested SEs. In both instances, the activation of leukaemic T cells by SE was dependent on the presence of HLA-DR+ cells. Southern blot analysis of TcRβ gene rearrangement confirmed that the proliferating cells were derived from the leukaemic T-cell clone and not from contaminating normal T cells. These data indicate that leukaemic T cells from patients with T-CLL exert a clonally variable responsiveness to SE superantigens. We conclude that recognition of specific antigen and subsequent signal transduction can be initiated via the TcR of leukaemic T-CLL cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Scandinavian journal of immunology 16 (1982), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Discontinuous Percoll gradients have been used to obtain selected humanperipheral blood T lymphocytes without having to resort to interactions with immune complexes in the fractionation of TM, TG and TA cells. Here, we could show that TA cells represent a heterogeneous population with no distinct density profile, in contrast to light(TG) and heavy (TM) cells. Enriched, heavy TM cells could be shown to be excellent responders in allogeneic MLR while failing to react in autologous MLR In contrast, T cells of light density preferentially respond in autologous compared with allogeneic MLR.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Scandinavian journal of immunology 62 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The use of electrical charge for electroporation or electrofusion is widely applied to customize dendritic cells (DC) and their immunological properties as anticancer vaccines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of various electrical field strengths on the recovery, viability and physiology of DC. Immature DC were transferred into low-conductive medium and electrically charged within a range of 0–1500 V/cm. Viability was assessed by Trypan Blue dye exclusion or staining with impermeant nucleic acid stains and fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis. Additionally, apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry after staining with Annexin-V, endocytosis by uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran and metabolic activity by a standardized fluorescent live/dead assay. There was a strong correlation between the electrical field strength and the viability and physiology of DC. Field strengths ≥1000 V/cm significantly impaired viability, metabolism and endocytotic activity. Dual fluorescence with 7-7-amino-actinomycin D and Annexin-V demonstrated that loss of viability was predominantly due to necrosis rather than apoptosis. Field strengths ≤500 V/cm allowed to maintain good cell viability and recovery of DC and did not cause alterations of metabolism and endocytosis. Therefore, the frequently used amplification of field strengths to improve the efficacy of electroporation and electrofusion requires critical re-evaluation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Scandinavian journal of immunology 41 (1995), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Expression of ceil surface CD4 (in the absence of CD3/T cell receptor) characterizes an early stage of intrathymic T cell development. Here, we investigated the appearance of CD4 and CD8 expression on highly purified CD4−8− double-negative human thymocytes in response to interleukin (IL)-7 and IL-2. While IL-7 preferentially promoted the appearance of CD4 single-positive and CD4+8+ double-positive thymocytes, I1-2 primarily induced CD8 single-positive thymocytes. A significant fraction of CD4 single-positive cells generated from double-negative thymocytes via IL-7 lacked cell surface CD3 expression. In contrast, the majority of CD8 single-positive cells generated from double-negative thymocytes via IL-2 coexpressed CD3. We conclude that IL-7 and IL-2 exert differential effects on the differentiation of early human T cell progenitors.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Scandinavian journal of immunology 22 (1985), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A limiting-dilution system was established to measure the frequency of alloreactive cytotoxic T-lymphocyte precursors (CTL-p) in human peripheral blood T cells. Culture medium supple mented with recombinant interleukin-2 enabled clonal expansion of all CTL-p stimulated by allogeneic peripheral blood or spleen cells. The range of CTL-p frequencies in fully HLA-mismatched responder-stimulator combinations was 1:240 to 1:1230. Split-well analysis of individual microwells showed that the cytotoxic T-cell clones generated under limiting-dilution conditions showed exquisite specificity for the stimulating alloantigens. Alloreactive CTL-p were enriched in the OKT4 T-cell subset. This limiting-dilution system was highly reproduci ble and can thus be applied to investigate human cytotoxic T-eell precursor frequencies in various clinically relevant situations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of molecular medicine 69 (1991), S. 623-628 
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Keywords: Immunologic tolerance ; Immunosuppression ; HLA typing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The clinical success of organ transplantation depends to a large degree on the immunological acceptance of the grafted organ. This paper summarizes from an immunological point of view the recent progress that has been made to improve graft acceptance, and discusses some future aspects in the field. Over the last few years, major emphasis has been put on the development of new immunosuppressive drugs, including FK 506, rapamycin, and Deoxyspergualin. Together with monoclonal antibodies against defined T-cell surface antigens, there are now new and effective means available to prevent or treat rejection episodes. Progress has also been made in the field of HLA typing, where the introduction of molecular biology-based methods significantly increased the accuracy of HLA class II typing. The ultimate goal of transplantation immunology is the induction of (donor-) specific tolerance. While some protocols are effective in inducing peripheral tolerance in experimental animals, these regimens are at present not yet applicable in the clinical situation. To overcome the shortage of donor organs, alternative strategies are currently being considered. Among these, xenotransplantation may eventually prove successful, despite the massive immunological problems such as, e.g., the presence of preformed xenoreactive antibodies.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of molecular medicine 68 (1990), S. 32-32 
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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