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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The Infra Krol Formation and overlying Krol Group constitute a thick (〈 2 km), carbonate-rich succession of terminal Proterozoic age that crops out in a series of doubly plunging synclines in the Lesser Himalaya of northern India. The rocks include 18 carbonate and siliciclastic facies, which are grouped into eight facies associations: (1) deep subtidal; (2) shallow subtidal; (3) sand shoal; (4) peritidal carbonate complex; (5) lagoonal; (6) peritidal siliciclastic–carbonate; (7) incised valley fill; and (8) karstic fill. The stromatolite-rich, peritidal complex appears to have occupied a location seaward of a broad lagoon, an arrangement reminiscent of many Phanerozoic and Proterozoic platforms. Growth of this complex was accretionary to progradational, in response to changes in siliciclastic influx from the south-eastern side of the lagoon. Metre-scale cycles tend to be laterally discontinuous, and are interpreted as mainly autogenic. Variations in the number of both sets of cycles and component metre-scale cycles across the platform may result from differential subsidence of the interpreted passive margin. Apparently non-cyclic intervals with shallow-water features may indicate facies migration that was limited compared with the dimensions of facies belts. Correlation of these facies associations in a sequence stratigraphic framework suggests that the Infra Krol Formation and Krol Group represent a north- to north-west-facing platform with a morphology that evolved from a siliciclastic ramp, to carbonate ramp, to peritidal rimmed shelf and, finally, to open shelf. This interpretation differs significantly from the published scheme of a basin centred on the Lesser Himalaya, with virtually the entire Infra Krol–Krol succession representing sedimentation in a persistent tidal-flat environment. This study provides a detailed Neoproterozoic depositional history of northern India from rift basin to passive margin, and predicts that genetically related Neoproterozoic deposits, if they are present in the High Himalaya, are composed mainly of slope/basinal facies characterized by fine-grained siliciclastic and detrital carbonate rocks, lithologically different from those of the Lesser Himalaya.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 426 (2003), S. 822-826 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The Earth's most severe glaciations are thought to have occurred about 600 million years ago, in the late Neoproterozoic era. A puzzling feature of glacial deposits from this interval is that they are overlain by 1–5-m-thick ‘cap carbonates’ (particulate deep-water marine ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2022-05-25
    Description: © The Author(s), 2017. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here under a nonexclusive, irrevocable, paid-up, worldwide license granted to WHOI. It is made available for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Earth and Planetary Science Letters 463 (2017): 159-170, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2017.01.032.
    Description: The Proterozoic Eon hosted the emergence and initial recorded diversification of eukaryotes. Oxygen levels in the shallow marine settings critical to these events were lower than today’s, although how much lower is debated. Here, we use concentrations of iodate (the oxidized iodine species) in shallow-marine limestones and dolostones to generate the first comprehensive record of Proterozoic near-surface marine redox conditions. The iodine proxy is sensitive to both local oxygen availability and the relative proximity to anoxic waters. To assess the validity of our approach, Neogene-Quaternary carbonates are used to demonstrate that diagenesis most often decreases and is unlikely to increase carbonate-iodine contents. Despite the potential for diagenetic loss, maximum Proterozoic carbonate iodine levels are elevated relative to those of the Archean, particularly during the Lomagundi and Shuram carbon isotope excursions of the Paleo- and Neoproterozoic, respectively. For the Shuram anomaly, comparisons to Neogene-Quaternary carbonates suggest that diagenesis is not responsible for the observed iodine trends. The baseline low iodine levels in Proterozoic carbonates, relative to the Phanerozoic, are linked to a shallow oxic-anoxic interface. Oxygen concentrations in surface waters would have at least intermittently been above the threshold required to support eukaryotes. However, the diagnostically low iodine data from mid-Proterozoic shallow-water carbonates, relative to those of the bracketing time intervals, are consistent with a dynamic chemocline and anoxic waters that would have episodically mixed upward and laterally into the shallow oceans. This redox instability may have challenged early eukaryotic diversification and expansion, creating an evolutionary landscape unfavorable for the emergence of animals.
    Description: TL, ZL, and DH thank NSF EAR-1349252. ZL further thanks OCE-1232620. DH, ZL, and TL acknowledge further funding from a NASA Early Career Collaboration Award. TL, AB, NP, DH, and AK thank the NASA Astrobiology Institute. TL and NP received support from the Earth-Life Transitions Program of the NSF. AB acknowledges support from NSF grant EAR-05-45484 and an NSERC Discovery and Accelerator Grants. CW acknowledges support from NSFC grant 40972021.
    Keywords: Proterozoic oxygen ; Shuram isotope anomaly ; Carbonate diagenesis ; Bahamas ; Iodine ; Metazoan evolution
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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