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  • 1
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 113 (1975), S. 389-402 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Summary New measurements on the stratospheric distribution of H2, CH4, CO and N2O are presented and used to demonstrate the natural variability of the trace gas concentrations. The present CH4 and H2 measurements and data from older balloon flights are combined to give average vertical profiles. These profiles are compared with water vapor data from various authors to see if the vertical decrease in CH4 is matched by a corresponding increase in H2O. By comparing the average measured profiles to those predicted by a one-dimensional chemical model, profiles of the vertical eddy diffusion coefficientk z are deduced. Generally, a barrier in the low stratosphere and increasing transport in middle and upper stratosphere seem required to match theoretical and experimental profiles. The limitations of the calculatedk z are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 106-108 (1973), S. 1352-1360 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Stratospheric profiles of CH4 and H2 over eastern Texas have been derived up to 31 km altitude from air samples collected aboard a balloon and analyzed by gas chromatography. For H2, contamination during flight and measurement presented a problem which has been resolved only recently. The earlier profiles require corrections which are rather large for the highest altitudes. The three profiles indicate an increase of the H2 concentration in the lower stratosphere from about 0.5 p.p.m. per volume at the tropopause to about 0.8 p.p.m. at around 27 km altitude. Above that altitude the H2 concentration decreases again. An air sample collected between 44 and 62 km by a rocket-borne cryogenic sampler had an H2 concentration of 0.4 p.p.m. The five CH4 profiles showed a decrease in CH4 concentration with altitude generally with a steeper gradient directly above the tropopause and a weaker gradient at higher altitudes reaching 0.9 p.p.m. at 30 km altitude. The CH4 concentration in the rocket sample was 0.25 p.p.m., in good agreement with the gradient obtained from the balloon samples.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: Brazil ; tropics ; biomass burning ; natural emissions ; air pollution ; global pollution ; nitrogen oxides ; hydrocarbons ; carbon monoxide ; ozone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Field measurement programs in Brazil during the dry seasons in August and September 1979 and 1980 have demonstrated the large importance of the continental tropics in global air chemistry. Many important trace gases are produced in large amounts over the continents. During the dry season, much biomass burning takes place, especially in the cerrado regions, leading to a substantial emission of air pollutants, such as CO, NO x , N2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons. Ozone concentrations are enhanced due to photochemical reactions. The large biogenic organic emissions from tropical forests play an important role in the photochemistry of the atmosphere and explain why CO is present in such high concentrations in the boundary layer of the tropical forest. Carbon monoxide production may represent more than 3% of the net primary productivity of the tropical forests. Ozone concentrations in the boundary layer of the tropical forests indicate strong removal processes. Due to atmospheric supply of NO x by lightning, there is probably a large production of O3 in the free troposphere over the Amazon tropical forests. This is transported to the marine-free troposphere and to the forest boundary layer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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