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  • 1
    ISSN: 0031-9422
    Keywords: Heterosigma akashiwo, Chattonella antiqua ; algae, Raphidophyceae ; chemotaxonomy ; fatty acids ; lipids ; red tides. ; sterols
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1793
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Paralytic shellfish toxin profiles of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum Graham were investigated as a possible biochemical marker to distinguish different geographic populations of this species. Isolates obtained between 1986 and 1988 from Japan, Tasmania (Australia) and Galicia (Spain) were cultured under similar conditions and the toxins produced were analyzed using HPLC. Variations in temperature, salinity, and nitrate and phosphate levels in the culture medium had no significant effect on the toxin profile, suggesting that toxins can be used as a stable biochemical marker for this dinoflagellate. All the isolates produced mainly toxins of the N-sulfocarbamoyl group (C1–C4, gonyautoxins 5 and 6) but their relative abundance differed according to their geographic origin. Furthermore, only the Australian population produced the newly found 13-deoxydecarbamoyl toxins, and these could readily be used to distinguish the Australian populations from those of the other two countries.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1793
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Phytoplankton pigments and species were studied at a coastal station off Sydney (New South Wales, Australia) over one annual cycle. Sudden increases in chlorophyll a (up to 280 mg m-2), due to short-lived diatom blooms, were found in May, July, September, January and February. These were superimposed upon background levels of chlorophyll a (20 to 50 mg m-2), due mostly to nanoplankton flagellates, which occurred throughout the year. The nanoplankton (〈15 μm) accounted for 50 to 80% of the total phytoplankton chlorophyll, except when the diatom peaks occurred (10 to 20%). The annual cycle of populations of 16 dominant species-groups was followed. Possible explanations as to alternation of diatom-dominated and nanoplankton-dominated floras are discussed. Thin-layer chromatography of phytoplankton pigments was used to determine the distribution of algal types, grazing activity, and phytoplankton senescence in the water column. Chlorophyll c and fucoxanthin (diatoms and coccolithophorids) and chlorophyll b (green flagellates) were the major accessory pigments throughout the year, with peridinin (photosynthetic dinoflagellates) being less important. Grazing activity by salps and copepods was apparent from the abundance of the chlorophyll degradation products pheophytin a (20 to 45% of the total chlorophyll a) and pheophorbide a (10 to 30%). Chlorophyllide a (20 to 45%) was associated with blooms of Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros spp. Small amounts of other unidentified chlorophyll a derivatives (5 to 20%) were frequently observed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: Diurnal variation ; Astaxanthin Acanthodiaptomus ; Feeding rhythm
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In Lac Pavin Acanthodiaptomus denticornis was found to be intensely reddish-orange coloured by keto-carotenoids of the astaxanthin type. Such pigments are not normally found in phytoplankton algae, and apparently these carotenoids result from the metabolism of pigments of dietary origin. The carotenoid content of the zooplankton showed a distinct 2.5-fold diurnal variation, with a minimum at night time and a maximum in the early morning. The possible impact of a diurnal difference in zooplankton feeding activity is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Due to the unprecedented rate at which our climate is changing, the ultimate consequence for many species is likely to be either extinction or migration to an alternate habitat. Certain species might, however, evolve at a rate that could make them resilient to the effects of a rapidly changing environment. This scenario is most likely to apply to species that have large population sizes and rapid generation times, such that the genetic variation required for adaptive evolution can be readily supplied. Emiliania huxleyi (Lohm.) Hay and Mohler (Prymnesiophyceae) is likely to be such a species, as it is the most conspicuous extant calcareous phytoplankton species in our oceans with growth rates of 1 day−1. Here we report on a validated set of microsatellites, in conjunction with the coccolithophore morphology motif genetic marker, to genotype 93 clonal isolates collected from across the world. Of these, 52 came from a single bloom event in the North Sea collected on the D366 United Kingdom Ocean Acidification cruise in June–July 2011. There were 26 multilocus genotypes (MLGs) encountered only once in the North Sea bloom and 8 MLGs encountered twice or up to six times. Each of these repeated MLGs exhibited Psex values of less than 0.05, indicating each repeated MLG was the product of asexual reproduction and not separate meiotic events. In addition, we show that the two most polymorphic microsatellite loci, EHMS37 and P01E05, are reporting on regions likely undergoing rapid genetic drift during asexual reproduction. Despite the small sample size, there were many more repeated genotypes than previously reported for other bloom-forming phytoplankton species, including a previously genotyped E. huxleyi bloom event. This study challenges the current assumption that sexual reproduction predominates during bloom events. Whilst genetic diversity is high amongst extant populations of E. huxleyi, the root cause for this diversity and ultimate fate of these populations still requires further examination. Nonetheless, we show that certain CMM genotypes are found everywhere, while others appear to have a regional bias.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-12-19
    Description: Marine phytoplankton have developed the remarkable ability to tightly regulate the concentration of free calcium ions in the intracellular cytosol at a level of ~ 0.1 μmol L−1 in the presence of seawater Ca2+ concentrations of 10 mmol L−1. The low cytosolic calcium ion concentration is of utmost importance for proper cell signalling function. While the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the tight control of intracellular Ca2+ concentration are not completely understood, phytoplankton taxonomic groups appear to have evolved different strategies, which may affect their ability to cope with changes in seawater Ca2+ concentrations in their environment on geological timescales. For example, the Cretaceous (145 to 66 Ma), an era known for the high abundance of coccolithophores and the production of enormous calcium carbonate deposits, exhibited seawater calcium concentrations up to 4 times present-day levels. We show that calcifying coccolithophore species (Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa oceanica and Coccolithus braarudii) are able to maintain their relative fitness (in terms of growth rate and photosynthesis) at simulated Cretaceous seawater calcium concentrations, whereas these rates are severely reduced under these conditions in some non-calcareous phytoplankton species (Chaetoceros sp., Ceratoneis closterium and Heterosigma akashiwo). Most notably, this also applies to a non-calcifying strain of E. huxleyi which displays a calcium sensitivity similar to the non-calcareous species. We hypothesize that the process of calcification in coccolithophores provides an efficient mechanism to alleviate cellular calcium poisoning and thereby offered a potential key evolutionary advantage, responsible for the proliferation of coccolithophores during times of high seawater calcium concentrations. The exact function of calcification and the reason behind the highly ornate physical structures of coccoliths remain elusive.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2012-03-08
    Description: We describe a climate-driven range expansion of the red-tide dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans into the Southern Ocean (45°31'S 147°E). Sea surface height data showed that a warm-core eddy moving southwards from Tasmania was the potential vector for the transport of Noctiluca . We provide evidence for active feeding of Noctiluca on Southern Ocean phytoplankton. Possible competition with other grazers may have implications for food web dynamics were Noctiluca to become established in the Southern Ocean.
    Print ISSN: 0142-7873
    Electronic ISSN: 1464-3774
    Topics: Biology
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-05-09
    Description: A massive central Australian dust storm in September 2009 was associated with abundant fungal spores (150,000/m 3 ) and hyphae in coastal waters between Brisbane (27°S) and Sydney (34°S). These spores were successfully germinated from formalin-preserved samples, and using molecular sequencing of three different genes (the large subunit rRNA gene [LSU], internal transcribed spacer [ITS[, and beta-tubulin gene), they were conclusively identified as Aspergillus sydowii , an organism circumstantially associated with gorgonian coral fan disease in the Caribbean. Surprisingly, no human health or marine ecosystem impacts were associated with this Australian dust storm event. Australian fungal cultures were nontoxic to fish gills and caused a minor reduction in the motility of Alexandrium or Chattonella algal cultures but had their greatest impacts on Symbiodinium dinoflagellate coral symbiont motility, with hyphae being more detrimental than spores. While we have not yet seen any soft coral disease outbreaks on the Australian Great Barrier Reef similar to those observed in the Caribbean and while this particular fungal population was non- or weakly pathogenic, our observations raise the possibility of future marine ecosystem pathogen impacts from similar dust storms harboring more pathogenic strains.
    Print ISSN: 0099-2240
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5336
    Topics: Biology
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-08-30
    Description: What is a Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB)? Photosynthetic algae support healthy aquatic ecosystems by forming the base of the food web, fixing carbon and producing oxygen. Under certain circumstances, some species can form high-biomass and/or toxic proliferations of cells (or “blooms”), thereby causing harm to aquatic ecosystems, including plants and animals, and to humans via direct exposure to water-borne toxins or by toxic seafood consumption. Ecosystem damage by high-biomass blooms may include, for instance, disruption of food webs, fish-killing by gill damage, or contribution to low oxygen “dead-zones” after bloom degradation. Some species also produce potent natural chemicals (toxins) that can persist in the water or enter the food web, leading to illness or death of aquatic animals and/or human seafood consumers.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Miscellaneous , notRev
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Book , peerRev
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