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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of atmospheric chemistry 4 (1986), S. 199-226 
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: Aerosol chemistry ; rain chemistry ; Pacific Ocean ; latitudinal variations ; diurnal variations
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Aerosol samples were collected on a Pacific cruise from 47°N to 55°S. Particle morphology, concentrations, and size distributions were analyzed with an electron microscope; elemental compositions of individual particles were determined with an X-ray energy spectrometer; and chemical compositions of bulk samples were measured with an ion chromatograph. Temporal and spatial variations of aerosol physico-chemical characteristics were studied in relation to ocean currents and atmospheric parameters. The results show that number and mass concentrations of primary particles depend mainly on surface wind speeds. However the ratios between the major ions, e.g., Na+, Cl-, and Mg++, are similar to the ratios in seawater regardless of location or meteorological conditions. The concentrations of secondary aerosols, e.g., non-seasalt sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium particles, show maxima at upwelling regions, such as along the California coast, at the Equator, and near the Chatham Rise where ascending motion brings nutrient-riched deep water into the surface layer. The number concentrations of small sulfate particles and large nitrate-coated particles showed diurnal variations with maxima in the early afternoon and minima at night, indicating that the particles are the products of photo-chemical reactions. Their precursor gases, e.g., CH3SCH3, NO, and NH3 are known to be released from seawater in upwelling regions where biological activities thrive.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: Brazil ; tropics ; biomass burning ; natural emissions ; air pollution ; global pollution ; nitrogen oxides ; hydrocarbons ; carbon monoxide ; ozone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Field measurement programs in Brazil during the dry seasons in August and September 1979 and 1980 have demonstrated the large importance of the continental tropics in global air chemistry. Many important trace gases are produced in large amounts over the continents. During the dry season, much biomass burning takes place, especially in the cerrado regions, leading to a substantial emission of air pollutants, such as CO, NO x , N2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons. Ozone concentrations are enhanced due to photochemical reactions. The large biogenic organic emissions from tropical forests play an important role in the photochemistry of the atmosphere and explain why CO is present in such high concentrations in the boundary layer of the tropical forest. Carbon monoxide production may represent more than 3% of the net primary productivity of the tropical forests. Ozone concentrations in the boundary layer of the tropical forests indicate strong removal processes. Due to atmospheric supply of NO x by lightning, there is probably a large production of O3 in the free troposphere over the Amazon tropical forests. This is transported to the marine-free troposphere and to the forest boundary layer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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