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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2109
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Two experiments were conducted with Australian snapper Pagrus auratus (Bloch and Schneider, 1801). The first was aimed at determining the dietary level of astaxanthin that improved skin redness (CIE a*values) of farm-reared snapper. Farmed snapper (ca. 600 g) fed a commercial diet without carotenoids were moved to indoor tanks and fed the same diet supplemented with 0, 36 or 72 mg astaxanthin kg−1 (unesterified form as Carophyll Pink™) for nine weeks. Skin redness (CIE a* values) continued to decrease over time in fish fed the diet without astaxanthin. Snapper fed the diet containing 72 mg astaxanthin kg−1 were significantly more red than fish fed the diet with 36 mg astaxanthin kg−1 three weeks after feeding, but skin redness was similar in both groups of fish after 6 and 9 weeks. The second experiment was designed to investigate the interactive effects of dietary astaxanthin source (unesterified form as Carophyll Pink™ or esterified form as NatuRose™; 60 mg astaxanthin kg−1) and degree of shading (0%, 50% and 95% shading from incident radiation) on skin colour (CIE L*a*b*) and skin and fillet astaxanthin content of farmed snapper (ca. 800 g) held in 1 m3 floating cages. After 116 days, there were no significant interactions between dietary treatment and degree of shading for L*, a* or b* skin colour values or the concentration of astaxanthin in the skin. Negligible amounts of astaxanthin were recovered from fillet samples. The addition of shade covers significantly increased skin lightness (L*), possibly by reducing the effect of melanism in the skin, but there was no difference between the lightness of fish held under either 50% or 95% shade cover (P〉0.05).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2109
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: This study assessed the nutrient and energy digestibility of a variety of canola protein products that were produced by processing canola meal under different conditions, using the red seabream, Pagrus auratus. The test canola protein products included solvent-extracted canola meal, expeller-extracted canola meal alone or subjected to one of two different heat treatments (120 or 150°C for 30 min), and expeller meal further processed to produce a canola protein concentrate (CPC). Solvent-extracted soybean meal was also included in the study as a reference ingredient. Daily feed intake and blood thyroid hormone levels over the experimental period were also examined. The total digestible protein content of the expeller- and solvent-extracted canola meals was 356 and 358 g per kg dry matter (g kg DM−1) respectively. The total digestible energy content of the expeller- and solvent-extracted canola meals was 14.23 and 8.60 MJ kg−1 respectively. The organic matter digestibilities of the solvent-extracted canola meal were poorer than noted for the expeller- and solvent-extracted soybean meal. Notably, the two sources of canola meals used in this study (solvent and expeller meals) did not cause problems with declining feed intakes or changes to blood levels of thyroid hormones when included in the diets of the fish at a 30% level, and the diets were fed over a 3-week period. The preparation of a CPC resulted in gains in total digestible energy, but a reduction in the amount of total digestible protein, relative to the expeller canola meal from which it was produced. However, the protein concentrating process marginally reduced the relative digestible value of the protein content. Heating expeller meal at 120 or 150°C for 30 min resulted in progressive reductions of all nutrient and energy digestibilities.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2109
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: This study examined the biological value of expeller- and solvent-extracted canola meals when included in the diets of juvenile red seabream. Notably, the test and reference diets in this study were prepared to be protein (300 g kg−1 DM) and energy (16.5 MJ kg−1  DM) limiting. Test diets were prepared, in which canola meal provided either 20%, 40% or 60% of the total dietary digestible protein. To minimize the influence of compensatory feed intake, all diets were pair-fed to the fish on restricted basis. Positive and negative controls were also included as treatments in the study to demonstrate that the diets were protein limiting and also to demonstrate the relative value of the highest inclusion levels of each test ingredient. The canola meals, either expeller- or solvent-extracted, were found to be nutritionally useful in diets for red seabream. Both ingredients were of similar value to that of the soybean meal when included on an equivalent digestible protein basis. No significant differences in weight gain, survival, FCR, N retention, energy retention or the apparent biological value of the N content were observed among any of the groups receiving the test or reference diets. A few significant differences were observed among some of the test and reference diets with regard to the apparent biological value of their energy content, although no consistent pattern was evident. The positive control treatment supported significantly superior growth and food utilization by the fish relative to all other treatments. The negative control treatment resulted in significantly poorer growth and food utilization by the fish relative to all other treatments. On a relative basis, there were no declines in fish performance between the highest inclusion levels of the expeller- and solvent-extracted canola meals or the soybean meal. Hence, the fish in this study obtained equivalent nutritional value from these ingredients, on a digestible basis, to that of the fishmeal in the reference diet.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1749-7345
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The growth, condition, and feed utilization patterns of juvenile southern bluefin tuna (SBT) fed moist-pellets were examined over a 19-wk period from March to July 1999. The SBT had significant weight gain over the course of the study, increasing on average from about 27 to 34 kg (dependent on size class). No significant weight gain by the SBT occurred in the first 5 wk of the study. Following this initial period of slow growth, the rate of weight gain increased, ranging between 40 to 90 g/d. Weight gain peaked after 11 wk, with no fbrther gain occurring after this time point. Weight gain was strongly related to average daily feed intake (AFI) which was predominantly influenced by water temperature. Weight gain was minimal following the decrease of water temperatures below 15 C, consistent with a decrease in feed intake from peak values at the beginning of the study to basal levels by week 13. Basal feeding levels were maintained for the remainder of the study through to week 19. Although water temperature and AFI were strongly related, other time related effects also appeared to be signillcant. A relationship between condition index and feed intake was also identified. Condition index of the SBT increased from about 19 kg/m3 to 22 kg/m3 over the 19-wk period. Similar to the patterns observed in growth, there was also an initial delay in increases of condition index. The results from this study support that the majority of weight gain by juvenile SBT occurs during the early part of the production season and that this is most likely influenced indirectly through responses to water temperature. The results of this study also suggest that there is little value in conducting growth trials beyond the point where water temperatures decrease below 15 C. Although there was minimal weight gain or improvement in condition beyond the 11-wk time point, these parameters would need to be considered in conjunction with flesh quality characteristics to identify optimum harvesting regimes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 29 (1998), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1749-7345
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract— Different amounts of dietary phospholipid were tested for their effect on the digestibility of total neutral lipids in the diet of the prawn Penaeus monodon. A purified source of the phospholipid, L-α-phosphatidylcholine, was included at 0. 5, 10, 20 or 40 g/kg in a purified diet containing 80 g/kg olive oil as the predominant neutral lipid source. The apparent digestibility of the neutral lipid (ADNL) in these diets was determined by comparing concentrations of the digestibility marker, cholestane in the feed and faeces of the prawns. ADNL (%) increased curvilinearly with increasing dietary phospholipid content (X, %) as described by the equation: ADNL = 80.4 + 9.08X -1.705X2 (P 〈 0.05; R2= 0.71); the asymptote of 92.5% was achieved with a phosphatidylcholine value of 27 g/kg. These results demonstrate that phosphatidylcholine significantly increases the digestibility of neutral lipids by penaeid prawns. However, olive oil was used as the predominant neutral lipid source to examine the effects with a relatively poorly digestible lipid source. The effects of phosphatidylcholine on more readily digested lipid sources such as fish oils, may not be as great, but still be sufficient to improve the utilisation of these nutrients.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 33 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1749-7345
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The performance of sea-water reared rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fed three isonitrogenous and iso-energetic diets based on either fishmeal, solvent-extracted soybean meal or yellow lupin (L luteus cv. Wodjil) kernel meal was evaluated. Over the course of a 10-wk study, the fastest growing fish were those fed the diet containing 50% yellow lupin kernel meal (YLM), which grew from 83.6 ± 0.7 g to 322.8 ± 3.2 g (mean ± SEM). This was not significantly faster than growth of fish fed the diet based on 50% solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM), though it was significantly (P 〈 0.05) faster than the growth of fish fed the fishmeal based diet (FSM). Growth of fish fed the experimental diets was comparable to growth of fish fed a range of commercial diets as a reference. Survival of fish fed the FSM diet was poorest of all the treatments (47.4%), though this was only significantly poorer than that of fish fed the YLM diet (88.9%). Feed intake was highest by fish fed the YLM diet (5.58 g/d) and lowest for fish fed the FSM diet (336 g/d). Reasons for these differences in feed intake were not clear, though they may be related to different levels of buoyancy and palatability among the diets. Feed conversion rate (FCR) was consistent between treatments at about 1.6:1, though given that this study was a sea-cage based experiment it is likely that considerable unaccounted feed losses occurred, thereby inflating the feed conversion value. Sensory evaluation of fish fed the three test treatments showed no overall difference in the acceptability of the fish, further supporting that solvent-extracted soybean meal and yellow lupin kernel meal both have considerable potential to replace fishmeal as a protein resource in diets for rainbow trout.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2024-02-07
    Description: Aquaculture has been one of the fastest-growing food production systems sectors for over three decades. With its growth, the demand for alternative, cheaper and high-quality feed ingredients is also increasing. Innovation investments on providing new functional feed alternatives have yielded several viable alternative raw materials. Considering all the current feed ingredients, their circular adaption in the aquafeed manufacturing industry is clearly of the utmost importance to achieve sustainable aquaculture in the near future. The use of terrestrial plant materials and animal by-products predominantly used in aquafeed ingredients puts a heavily reliance on terrestrial agroecosystems, which also has its own sustainability concerns. Therefore, the aquafeed industry needs to progress with functional and sustainable alternative raw materials for feed that must be more resilient and consistent, considering a circular perspective. In this review, we assess the current trends in using various marine organisms, ranging from microorganisms (including fungi, thraustochytrids, microalgae and bacteria) to macroalgae and macroinvertebrates as viable biological feed resources. This review focuses on the trend of circular use of resources and the development of new value chains. In this, we present a perspective of promoting novel circular economy value chains that promote the re-use of biological resources as valuable feed ingredients. Thus, we highlight some potentially important marine-derived resources that deserve further investigations for improving or addressing circular aquaculture.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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