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  • 1
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: XV, 407 S
    Language: English
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: Alexandrium cohorticula ; paralytic shellfish toxins ; gonyautoxins ; saxitoxin ; Sagami Bay ; Japan
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Two clones ofAlexandrium cohorticula were isolated at Aburatsubo, Sagami Bay, Japan. Cultured cells of both contained high amounts of paralytic shellfish toxins. The toxicity of these isolates was comparable with that of highly toxic Thai clones. No significant difference in toxin components or their proportions was observed between Japanese and Thai strains. The optimum growth temperature of both strains was around 25 °C. Japanese strains survived at 15 °C, whereas Thai strains did not; the latter grew faster than the former at 30 °C.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-05-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Elsevier B.V., 2008. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Marine Pollution Bulletin 56 (2008): 1049-1056, doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2008.03.010.
    Description: The proposed plan for enrichment of the Sulu Sea, Philippines, a region of rich marine biodiversity, with thousands of tonnes of urea in order to stimulate algal blooms and sequester carbon is flawed for multiple reasons. Urea is preferentially used as a nitrogen source by some cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates, many of which are neutrally or positively buoyant. Biological pumps to the deep sea are classically leaky, and the inefficient burial of new biomass makes the estimation of a net loss of carbon from the atmosphere questionable at best. The potential for growth of toxic dinoflagellates is also high, as many grow well on urea and some even increase their toxicity when grown on urea. Many toxic dinoflagellates form cysts which can settle to the sediment and germinate in subsequent years, forming new blooms even without further fertilization. If large-scale blooms do occur, it is likely that they will contribute to hypoxia in the bottom waters upon decomposition. Lastly, urea production requires fossil fuel usage, further limiting the potential for net carbon sequestration. The environmental and economic impacts are potentially great and need to be rigorously assessed.
    Description: This paper was developed under the Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (GEOHAB) core research project on HABs and Eutrophication and the GEOHAB regional focus on HABs in Asia. GEOHAB is supported by the International Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO and by the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR), which are, in turn, supported by multiple agencies, including NSF and NOAA of the USA.
    Keywords: Urea dumping ; Ocean fertilization ; Carbon credits ; Sulu Sea ; Carbon sequestration ; Harmful algae ; Toxic dinoflagellates ; Cyanobacteria ; Hypoxia
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
    Format: application/pdf
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