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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Marine mammal science 3 (1987), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1748-7692
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: We provided a water-cornea interface to correct the usual aerial myopia encountered in fundus photography of marine mammal eyes. The 12 Tursiops eyes were consistent for vascular structure, optic papillae, dimensional components and tapetal coloration. Multiple photographs were assembled to produce one ocular fundus typical of Tursiops truncatus and one for Grampus griseus. The eyes have a vestigial hyaloid vessel and an optic disc („blind spot”) that occupies the center of the fundus. The disc is bounded in both species by a vascular structure that is continuous with a (retrobulbar) perineural organ called the ophthalmic rete. The vascular trees of the fundus do not suggest an area of specialization for high resolution. Both species exhibit total tapetalization. Tapetal spectral reflectance did not vary between Tursiops. There was, however, a difference between species in the short wavelength regions of the spectrum.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Marine mammal science 8 (1992), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1748-7692
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: In the laboratory, intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured in each eye of two adult Tursiops truncatus and one Grampus griseus. Measures were made in alternation between eyes over a time span. Means and standard deviations were calculated. Mean IOP's ranged from 33.4 mm Hg (SD = 2.4) in the male Tursiops to 24.6 (SD = 2.3) in the female Tursiops. IOP in the Grampus was intermediate. Tonograph functions for the Tursiops over periods greater than 25 min had a cyclic character with maxima and minima. These cycles were fitted with a polynomial function with periods of 15 min (female) and 20 to 26 min (male). There was no significant correlation of the IOP variations with time between eyes in either Tursiops. Compared to humans, these cetaceans exhibit clinical ocular hypertension bilaterally. The range of pressures they exhibit, over time, is much greater than reported previously for several terrestrial mammals.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Marine mammal science 8 (1992), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1748-7692
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Details of the lenses of eyes in two living Tursiops truncatus and one Grampus griseus were photographed. In the laboratory the lens cortex could be retro-illuminated by a fundus camera and spatially periodic stria could be visualized, in large part because of the highly developed tapetum of the cetacean eye. Varying spaces were present between the stria. On a three-dimensional basis, the best analogy is the layering of an onion. One photograph was digitized giving good quantification of the sizes of the layers and their number. Similar, but less easily resolved, lens cortex organization has been described frequently in humans as “zones of optical discontinuity.” These have been explained as a periodic temporal consequence of normal aging with layer thickness depending on general health. We found that young cetaceans have few “zones” and older cetaceans have many. Lens zones measurement may be developed to Provide objective data on history of cetacean health and age.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Marine mammal science 3 (1987), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1748-7692
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Compared to the anterior surface of the normal human cornea, all Tursiops showed pronounced random, local curvature changes typical of old keratitis and scarring. Comparable but less severe findings apply to Zalophus. These irregularities were superimposed on the mild regular astigmatism of the spoon-shaped Tursiops cornea (mean central power is 26.8 D, SD = 3.8, N = 82). All Zalophus corneas showed no reliable regular astigmatism (overall mean power is 21.7 D, SD = 4.4, N = 53) but exhibited a flat, circular region about 6.5 mm in diameter along the nasal aspect of the horizontal meridian. Refraction through this cornea1 region showed aerial emmetropia, which accounts for equivalent marine and aerial visual resolution in this species.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Signals in the 70 to 500 Hz pass-band which are time-locked and positively correlated in amplitude with the visual evoked response (0.1–20 Hz) can be recorded on the human scalp over the visual area. Highly consistent responses have been produced between independent samples of normal humans ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 208 (1965), S. 589-590 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Electrophysiological examinations of more than 100 single and multiple ommatidium preparations have demonstrated inter- and intra-preparation X-ray sensitivity variations in contrast to relatively stable visible light -excitability. Records of single optic axon spike responses to whole lateral eye ...
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 196 (1962), S. 341-345 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] IT is generally accepted that the trigeminal nerve endings in the nasal mucosa play some part in the detection of odour1-5. In 1937 Allen6 reported that dogs with bilaterally ablated olfactory bulbs would still detect the vapour of certain acids while other animals, the trigeminal nerves of which ...
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Documenta ophthalmologica 69 (1988), S. 227-235 
    ISSN: 1573-2622
    Keywords: b-wave ; endophthalmitis ; electroretinogram
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To facilitate the early diagnosis of exogenous fungal endophthalmitis, we developed a rabbit model for Aspergillus fumigatus endophthalmitis. Six eyes of six New Zealand white rabbits were inoculated with forty spores of A. fumigatus. A control group of their six contralateral eyes received a similar but sterile inoculum. The rabbit eyes were evaluated with respect to clinical appearance and the electroretinogram. Clinically evident endophthalmitis developed in all six infected eyes at an average of five days after injection (range 3–7 days). Data samples each 48 hours showed transient b-wave amplitude elevations in three infected eyes. These were greater than two standard deviations above the mean pre-injection values (p 〈 0.05). These amplitude increases preceded the onset of ophthalmoscopically recognizable infection and were observed at 2 to 5 days after injection (mean = 4 days). B-wave amplitudes in the infected eyes fell below two standard deviations of pre-injection values (p 〈 0.05) at an average of 5 days (range 3–7 days) after injection, a time corresponding to the onset of clinically obvious infection. At an average of 7 days after injection, all the infected eyes exhibited unmeasurable electroretinogram waveforms and severe infection. Histopathologic study of infected eyes showed extensive fungal infiltration of retina and vitreous tissues. The electroretinogram may be helpful in the early diagnosis of fungal endophthalmitis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Documenta ophthalmologica 65 (1987), S. 297-306 
    ISSN: 1573-2622
    Keywords: DTL electrode ; pattern electroretinogram ; reference electrode position
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The pattern electroretinogram has assumed greater clinical and experimental significance because of its inner retinal origins. However, clinical tests may be confounded by an artifact. We tested subjects varying reference electrode position and eye stimulated while employing the Dawson-Trick-Litzkow (DTL) fiber electrode as the active electrode. The presence of a statistically significant artifactual response could not be confirmed. However, the variability of responses elicited with the outer canthus was less and the signal-to-noise ratio greater than with other reference positions.
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