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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Dordrecht :Springer Netherlands,
    Keywords: Sedimentology. ; Marine sediments. ; Electronic books.
    Description / Table of Contents: One of the first books to focus exclusively on tidal sedimentology, this volume comprehensively covers both modern and ancient systems as well as siliciclastic and carbonate sediments, and compiles contributions from internationally recognized experts.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (621 pages)
    Edition: 1st ed.
    ISBN: 9789400701236
    Language: English
    Note: Intro -- Principles of Tidal Sedimentology -- Preface -- Contents -- Contributors -- 1: Tidal Constituents of Modern and Ancient Tidal Rhythmites: Criteria for Recognition and Analyses -- 1.1 Introduction -- 1.2 Equilibrium Tidal Theory -- 1.2.1 Semidiurnal (12.42 h) -- 1.2.2 Synodic (29.53 Days) -- 1.2.3 Tropical (Semidiurnal, 27.33 Days) -- 1.2.4 Tropical (Diurnal, 27.32 Days) -- 1.2.5 Anomalistic (27.55 Days) -- 1.2.6 Semiannual (182.6 Days) -- 1.3 Dynamic Tidal Theory -- 1.4 Ancient Tides -- 1.4.1 Hindostan Whetstone Beds (Pennsylvanian, Indiana) -- 1.4.2 Brazil Formation (Pennsylvanian, Indiana) -- 1.4.3 Abbott Sandstone (Tradewater Formation, Pennsylvanian, Illinois) -- 1.5 Summary and Implications -- References -- 2: Principles of Sediment Transport Applicable in Tidal Environments -- 2.1 Introduction -- 2.2 Principles of Sediment Transport -- 2.2.1 Fundamental Parameters -- 2.2.2 Transport of Non-cohesive Sediments in Tidal Environments -- 2.2.2.1 Initiation of Motion -- 2.2.2.2 Bedload Transport -- 2.2.2.3 Suspended-Load Transport -- 2.2.3 Transport of Cohesive Sediments in Tidal Environments -- 2.2.4 Tidal Currents as Non-steady Flows -- 2.3 Summary -- References -- 3: Tidal Signatures and Their Preservation Potential in Stratigraphic Sequences -- 3.1 Introduction -- 3.2 Sedimentary Structures -- 3.2.1 Biogenic Structures -- 3.2.1.1 Surface Structures -- 3.2.1.2 Three-Dimensional Structures -- 3.2.2 Physical Structures -- 3.2.2.1 Surface Structures -- Bedforms -- 3.2.2.2 Three-Dimensional Structures -- Cross-Strata -- Horizontal Laminations -- Cross-Strata Structures -- Miscellaneous Tidal Influence Indicators -- 3.3 Paleotidal Range -- 3.4 Lack of Tidalite Production in Tidal Environments -- 3.5 Summary -- References -- 4: Tidal Ichnology of Shallow-Water Clastic Settings -- 4.1 Introduction. , 4.2 Background -- 4.3 Process Sedimentological Importance of Some Selected Ichnological Characteristics -- 4.3.1 Vertical Spatial Distribution of Trace Fossils in Tidal Settings -- 4.3.2 Trace-Fossil Size and Diversity -- 4.3.3 The Significance of Burrow Linings and Infills -- 4.3.4 Characteristic Feeding Behaviors in Tidal Settings -- 4.4 Ichnologic Recognition of Tidally Influenced Deposits -- 4.5 Summary -- References -- 5: Processes, Morphodynamics, and Facies of Tide-Dominated Estuaries -- 5.1 Introduction -- 5.2 Process Framework -- 5.2.1 Waves, River, Tidal Currents, and Bed-Material Movement -- 5.2.2 Salinity, Residual Circulation and Suspended-Sediment Behavior -- 5.3 Morphology of Tide-Dominated Estuaries -- 5.3.1 General Aspects -- 5.3.2 Outer Estuary -- 5.3.3 Inner Estuary -- 5.4 Sediment Facies -- 5.4.1 Axial Grain-Size Trends -- 5.4.2 Facies Characteristics -- 5.4.2.1 Outer Estuary: Axial Deposits -- 5.4.2.2 Inner Estuary: Tidal-Fluvial Transition -- 5.4.2.3 Fringing Facies -- 5.5 Summary -- References -- 6: Stratigraphy of Tide-Dominated Estuaries -- 6.1 Introduction -- 6.2 Tide- vs. Wave-Dominated Estuaries: A Few Reminders -- 6.3 Stratigraphy of Tide-Dominated Estuary Infill: Case Studies -- 6.3.1 Progress in the Assessment of Estuary Stratigraphy: The Use of Very High-Resolution Seismic Data -- 6.3.2 Modern Estuaries with Low River Sediment Supply -- 6.3.2.1 Cobequid Bay-Salmon River Estuary, Bay of Fundy -- 6.3.2.2 South Alligator Estuary, van Diemen Gulf, North Australia -- 6.3.2.3 Gironde Estuary, Central Bay of Biscay, SW France -- 6.3.2.4 Seine Estuary, Bay of Seine, NW France -- 6.3.2.5 The Mont-Saint-Michel Estuary, Norman-Breton Gulf, NW France -- 6.3.2.6 Vilaine Estuary, Northern Bay of Biscay, NW France -- 6.3.3 Modern Estuaries with High River Sediment Supply. , 6.3.3.1 Early Holocene Yangtze Estuary, East China Sea, China -- 6.3.3.2 Qiantang River Estuary, Hangzhou Bay, China -- 6.3.4 Ancient Estuaries -- 6.3.4.1 Pleistocene Dong Nai River Succession, Vietnam -- 6.3.4.2 Aspelintoppen Formation, Eocene Central Basin, Spitsbergen -- 6.3.4.3 Chimney Rock Tongue, Upper Cretaceous, Campanian, the Flaming Gorge Area, Utah-Wyoming, USA -- 6.3.4.4 Cujupe Formation, Upper Cretaceous - Lower Tertiary São Luis Basin, N Brazil -- 6.4 Key Features of Tide-Dominated Estuary Successions -- 6.5 Factors Controlling Tide-Dominated Estuary Infilling -- 6.5.1 Tidal Dynamics and Inherited Bedrock Morphology -- 6.5.2 Sea-Level Fluctuations -- 6.5.3 Sediment Supply -- 6.5.4 Climate Changes and Human Influences -- 6.6 Tide-Dominated vs. Wave-Dominated Estuaries -- 6.7 Summary -- References -- 7: Tide-Dominated Deltas -- 7.1 Introduction -- 7.2 Background -- 7.2.1 Past Research -- 7.2.2 Modern Examples -- 7.2.3 Humans and Deltas -- 7.3 Hydrodynamics -- 7.3.1 Tidal Processes -- 7.3.1.1 Tidal Amplification -- 7.3.1.2 Tidal Asymmetry -- 7.3.2 Fluvial and 'Estuarine' Processes -- 7.3.2.1 Sediment Transport Convergence -- 7.3.2.2 Residual Flow -- 7.3.3 Marine Processes -- 7.3.3.1 Gravity-Driven Sediment Transport -- 7.3.3.2 Compound Clinoform Development -- 7.3.4 Sediment Budgets -- 7.4 Sedimentary Environments -- 7.4.1 Subaerial Delta -- 7.4.2 Subaqueous Delta -- 7.4.3 Facies Associations -- 7.5 Stratigraphy -- 7.5.1 Stratigraphic Successions -- 7.5.2 Delta Progradation -- 7.5.3 Role of Sea-Level Change -- 7.6 Summary -- References -- 8: Salt Marsh Sedimentation -- 8.1 Introduction -- 8.2 Measurements of Salt Marsh Sedimentation Through Time -- 8.3 Morphodynamics of Salt Marshes -- 8.3.1 Relationship to Salt Marsh Creeks -- 8.3.2 Salt Marsh Platform -- 8.3.3 Exposed Salt Marsh Zones. , 8.3.4 Effects of Vegetation -- 8.4 Physical Properties of Salt Marshes -- 8.4.1 Sediments -- 8.4.2 Autocompaction -- 8.5 Salt Marsh Accretion Models -- 8.5.1 Model Formulation -- 8.5.2 Examples of the Use of Accretion Models -- 8.5.2.1 Salt Marsh Stability in Relation to Sea-Level Rise -- 8.5.2.2 Relationship to Different Tidal Conditions -- 8.6 Salt Marshes in the Geological Record -- 8.6.1 Mainland and Backbarrier Salt Marsh Deposits -- 8.6.2 Facies Associations -- 8.7 Summary -- References -- 9: Open-Coast Tidal Flats -- 9.1 Introduction -- 9.2 Depositional Systems -- 9.3 Physiography and Morphology -- 9.3.1 Tide, Wave, and Wind Climate -- 9.3.2 Landforms and Zonation -- 9.4 Morphodynamics and Sediment Dynamics -- 9.4.1 Erosion and Deposition Cycles -- 9.4.1.1 Short-Term Cycles (A Few Minutes to Days) -- 9.4.1.2 Intermediate Cycles (Neap-Spring Tidal Cycle to Season) -- 9.4.1.3 Long-Term Cycles (A Few Years to Decades) -- 9.4.1.4 Megacycles (Hundreds to Thousands of Years) -- 9.5 Sedimentary Structures and Bedding -- 9.6 Preservation Potential -- 9.7 Sedimentary Facies and Successions -- 9.7.1 Holocene Examples -- 9.7.1.1 Progradational Open-Coast Tidal-Flat Successions -- 9.7.1.2 Retrogradational Open-Coast Tidal-Flat Successions -- 9.7.1.3 Estuarine-Deltaic Channel Filling Successions with Tidal Rhythms -- 9.7.2 Ancient Examples -- 9.7.2.1 Tonglu (Late Ordovician) -- 9.7.2.2 Islay (Late Proterozoic) -- 9.7.2.3 Ramgundam (Middle Proterozoic) -- 9.7.2.4 Hazel Patch (Late Carboniferous) -- 9.8 Summary -- References -- 10: Siliciclastic Back-Barrier Tidal Flats -- 10.1 Introduction -- 10.2 Hydrological Constraints -- 10.3 Morphology, Sedimentology and Mass Physical Properties -- 10.3.1 Morphological Characteristics -- 10.3.2 Sedimentological Characteristics -- 10.3.3 Mass Physical Sediment Properties. , 10.4 Depositional Facies and Sedimentary Structures -- 10.4.1 Biological Surface Structures -- 10.4.2 Physical Surface Structures -- 10.4.3 Internal Sedimentary Structures -- 10.5 Stratigraphic Relationships -- 10.6 Modern Examples and Ancient Analogues -- 10.6.1 Modern Examples -- 10.6.2 Ancient Analogues -- References -- 11 : Tidal Channels on Tidal Flats and Marshes -- 11.1 Introduction -- 11.2 General Characteristics of Tidal Channel Systems -- 11.3 Classification of Channels and Channel Network Morophologies -- 11.3.1 Elaboration -- 11.3.2 Dendritic Networks -- 11.3.3 Braided, Distributary and Interconnected Channels -- 11.3.4 Parallel Channels or No Channels -- 11.4 Hydrodynamics -- 11.4.1 Tidal Range -- 11.4.2 Asymmetry of Tidal Currents -- 11.4.3 Overtopping and Velocity-Stage Relationships -- 11.4.4 Shear Stress and Erosion Potential -- 11.4.5 Implication for Sediment Transport -- 11.5 Tidal Channel Morphology -- 11.5.1 Initiation -- 11.5.2 Secondary Processes of Initiation or Evolution -- 11.5.3 Meander Evolution (Elaboration) -- 11.5.4 Channel Migration -- 11.6 Geomorphic Relationships -- 11.6.1 Channel Width -- 11.6.2 Width-to-Depth Ratio -- 11.6.3 Channel Cross-Sectional Area -- 11.6.4 Sinuosity -- 11.6.5 Stream Order and Drainage Density -- 11.7 Preservation Potential -- 11.8 Summary -- References -- 12: Morphodynamics and Facies Architecture of Tidal Inlets and Tidal Deltas -- 12.1 Introduction -- 12.2 Morphology and Stability: General Concepts -- 12.2.1 Tidal Delta Morphodynamics -- 12.2.1.1 Flood-Tidal Deltas -- 12.2.1.2 Ebb-Tidal Deltas -- 12.3 Bedform Distribution -- 12.4 Tidal Inlet Relationships -- 12.4.1 Inlet Throat Area - Tidal Prism Relationship -- 12.4.2 Ebb-Tidal Delta Volume - Tidal Prism Relationship -- 12.5 Sand Transport Patterns -- 12.5.1 General Sand Dispersal Trends. , 12.5.2 Inlet Sediment Bypassing.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Cross-bedded, cool-water, bioclastic limestones of the Te Kuiti Group on the North Island of New Zealand are composed primarily of bryozoans, echinoderms, and benthic foraminifers. Their prominent, large-scale, unidirectional cross-stratification is interpreted as produced by migrating subaqueous dunes on the floor of a 50–100 km wide, north-east-trending seaway in water depths of 40–60 m. These dunes are thought to have developed in response to strong, seaway-parallel, tidal currents combined with a north-east-directed, set-up or oceanic current.Cross-stratification is organized into four hierarchical levels: (1) cross-lamination; (2) first-order sets; (3) second-order sets; and (4) cross-stratified successions. The levels are based on increasing degrees of internal complexity. Distinct attributes such as internal organization, cross-set thickness, foreset shape, and lower bounding-surface shape are used to describe and interpret the cross-stratification. All these attributes are here integrated in a new and expanded classification of unidirectional cross-stratification that emphasizes flow and bedform dynamics rather than overall set shape.Individual cross-stratified successions are interpreted to have formed by dunes with varying sinuosity, superposition, and flow history, under conditions of different current strength but constant sediment production. Horizontally bedded successions are the result of robust, active dune fields that grew during times of vigorous sediment transport. Formset successions were produced from large compound dunes and are the expression of languid and decaying dune fields that developed during times of decreasing sediment transport. These decaying dunes were gradually smothered by continuously and locally produced bioclastic sediment. Formset cross-stratified successions are most likely to develop in carbonates, where the sediment is produced in place, than in terrigenous clastics where the sediment is imported.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The post-glacial succession in the Cobequid Bay — Salmon River incised valley contains two sequences, the upper one incomplete. The lower sequence contains only highstand system tracts (HST) deposits which accumulated under microtidal, glacio-marine deltaic conditions. The upper sequence contains two, retrogradationally stacked parasequences. The lower one accumulated in a wave-dominated estuarine environment under micro-mesotidal conditions. It belongs to the lowstand system tract (LST) or early transgressive system tract (TST) depending on the timing and location of the lowstand shoreline, and contains a gravel barrier that has been overstepped and preserved with little modification. The upper parasequence accumulated in the modern, macrotidal estuary, and is assignable to the late TST. Recent, net progradation of the fringing marshes indicates that a new HST has begun.The sequence boundary separating the two sequences was formed by fluvial incision, and perhaps also by subtidal erosion during the relative sea level fall. Additional local erosion by waves and tidal currents occurred during the transgression. The base of the macrotidal sands is a prominent tidal ravinement surface which forms the flooding surface between the backstepping estuarine parasequences. Because fluvial deposition continued throughout the transgression, the fluvial-estuarine contact is diachronous and cannot be used as the transgressive surface. The maximum flooding surface will be difficult to locate in the macrotidal sands, but is more easily identified in the fringing muddy sediments.These observations indicate that: (1) large incised valleys may contain a compound fill that consists of more than one sequence; (2) relative sea level changes determine the stratal stacking patterns, but local environmental factors control the nature of the facies and surfaces; (3) these surfaces may have complex origins, and commonly become amalgamated; (4) designation of the transgressive surface (and thus the LST) is particularly difficult as many of the prominent surfaces in the valley fill are diachronous facies boundaries; and (5) the transgression of complex topography may cause geologically instantaneous changes in tidal range, due to resonance under particular geographical configurations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Sedimentology 26 (1979), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Soft-sediment deformation features occur commonly on parts of intertidal sand bodies in Cobequid Bay, Bay of Fundy. These features are small- to intermediate-sized, slump-like bodies, 1-3 m2 in area and located on the crest and upper stoss side of ebb megaripples. External modification of these slumps indicates that they formed before complete emergence. The deformed cross-bedding within these bodies extends to a depth of 0.15-0.35 m and shows that deformation occurred during slumping and flowage of liquefied sand down the megaripple stoss side. Field evidence and calculations strongly indicate that this liquefaction results from the impact of 0.1-0.3 m high waves breaking against the megaripple lee faces. Neither rapid drawdown of the water level nor earthquake shocks are reasonable alternative explanations.Indigenous wave activity provides an attractive substitute to tectonism as an explanation of soft-sediment deformation in ancient shallow-water sediments. Slow wave-induced compaction may also account for the relative scarcity of deformation structures in shallow marine sandstones.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Sedimentology 31 (1984), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Intertidal sandwaves in the Minas Basin and Cobequid Bay, Bay of Fundy, occur under a wide range of conditions (mean grain size 0.274-1.275 mm; velocity strength index (V1)0.46-3.34; and velocity symmetry index (V2) 0.011-0.294), and they vary from symmetrical to strongly asymmetrical in cross-section. Heights and wavelengths average 0.81 and 37.9 m respectively. They are straight to weakly sinuous and laterally continuous in plan, occasionally show crestal branching reminiscent of wave ripples, and are commonly skewed relative to the strongest currents because of differential migration rates along their length. The average migration rate is 0.11 m/tidal cycle. Megaripples occur on each sandwave crest, at least during spring tides, but the areal extent, sinuosity and size of the megaripples increases as the dominant current speed increases. The megaripples have heights averaging 24% of the sandwave height, are oriented perpendicular to the fastest dominant currents, and have life spans of several tidal cycles. They are believed to be in quasi-equilibrium with the sandwaves and play a key role in sandwave dynamics and internal structure formation: periods of lee face steepening and rapid forward migration (megaripple crest at sandwave brink) alternate with times of non-deposition or erosion and slowed or reversed migration (trough at brink).Dominant-current cross-bedding predominates in the two intergradational varieties of translation structure observed: Inclined Cross-Bedding—decimetre-scale cross-beds separated by gently inclined (9° average) erosional surfaces; and Large-Scale Foresets—cross-beds with thicknesses greater than half the sandwave height, interrupted by weakly erosional to conformable discontinuity surfaces. These are overlain by a vertical growth or repair structure, Complex Cross-Bedded Cosets, that consists of nearly equal volumes of dominant- and subordinate-current cross-beds stacked without a preferred set-boundary dip. The translation structures correspond well to forms predicted by Allen (1980a, fig. 8) but the inclined set boundaries and discontinuity surfaces (master bedding planes) are produced by megaripple troughs rather than by current reversals. Consequently, Allen's regime diagram is unable to predict structure occurrences. The repair structures suggest that ‘curvature-related mass-transport’ (Allen, 1980a, b) is important in tidal sandwave maintenance, although it is not necessarily responsible for sandwave initiation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Sedimentology 27 (1980), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: In his recent paper on surge mark formation and morphology, Bull (1978) has provided considerable new and interesting information on these peculiar features. Of particular note is his observation that the laminae within surge marks are continuous and not dissected as would be expected if the surge marks were erosional rills: the previously proposed mechanism of formation (High & Picard, 1968; Picard & High, 1973). Consequently, it becomes necessary to formulate an alternative explanation for surge mark origin, and Bull (1978, p. 885) offers the suggestion that: ‘Surge marks may be the result of selective depositional/erosional processes together with external deformation pressures.’
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The 40-km-long, Cobequid Bay—Salmon River estuary has a maximum tidal range of 16·3 m and experiences limited wave action. Sediment, which is derived primarily from areas seaward of the estuary, is accumulating faster than the high-tide elevation is rising, and the system is progradational. The deposits consist of an axial belt of sands, which is flanked by mudflats and salt marshes in the inner half of the estuary where a funnel-shaped geometry is developed, and by erosional or non-depositional foreshores in the outer half where the system is confined by the valley walls. The axial sands are divisible into three facies zones: zone 1—elongate, tidal sand bars at the seaward end; zone 2—sand flats with a braided channel pattern; zone 3—the inner, single-channel, tidal—fluvial transition. Tidal current speeds reach a maximum in zone 2, but grain sizes decrease headward (from medium and coarse sand in zone 1, to fine and very fine sand in zones 2 and 3) because the headward termination of the major flood channels prevents the coarse, traction population from entering the inner part of the estuary.Longitudinal progradation will produce a 20-m-thick, upward-fining succession, the lower 1/2–2/3 of which will consist of cross-bedded, medium to coarse sand deposited on the zone 1 sand bars. The ebb-dominated portion of this unit will be finer grained than the flood-dominated part, and will contain trough crossbedding produced by 3-D megaripples; the flood-dominated areas, by contrast, will consist mainly of compound cross-bedding created by sandwaves with superimposed megaripples. Headward migration of swatchways (oblique channels that link the ebb- and flood-dominated areas) will create packages of ebb cross-bedding that is orientated at a high angle to the long axis of the estuary and that contains headwardinclined, lateral-accretion surfaces. The overlying fine and very fine sands of zones 2 and 3 will be composed mainly of upper-flow-regime parallel lamination. The succession will be capped by a 4-m-thick unit of mixed flat, mudflat and salt marsh sediments. A review of other macrotidal estuaries with tidal ranges greater than 10 m suggests that the major elements of the model have general applicability.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Sedimentology 44 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Latest Neoproterozoic to earliest Cambrian strata in north-western Canada provide an example of a pre-vegetation braid-delta depositional system. Depositional environments represented in the succession include braided fluvial and braid-delta distributary channels, aeolian dune fields and interdistributary lagoons/bays, as well as mouth bar, beach to shoreface, and prodelta to distal shelf settings. Three formations have been investigated: the Ingta Formation formed in wave-dominated nearshore to offshore shelf environments with little or no apparent deltaic influence, whereas the overlying Backbone Ranges and Vampire formations contain an extensive record of braid-delta deposits ranging from braidplain to distal prodelta facies. On the braid-plain, river channels reached widths of up to several kilometres. Such channels terminated seaward in braid deltas that showed some shoreline protuberance and were characterized by fluvial-dominated mouth-bar deposition with lesser wave influence; wave-dominated deltaic successions are rare in the succession. Interdeltaic areas were characterized by wave-dominated prograding shorelines. Interdistributary lagoons probably formed primarily in abandoned distributary channels. Delta-front/prodelta deposits are silt-rich and contain abundant soft-sediment deformation, including slumps. The deposits in these formations illustrate the significantly different nature of sedimentation prior to the advent of land plants. This is illustrated in the dominance of braided fluvial deposition and of silt-rich offshore facies that may have resulted from enhanced aeolian transport of loess. The non-actualistic effects of limited bioturbation and extensive microbial binding apparently exerted relatively little control on the distribution of facies. However, the absence of extensive bioturbation is manifest in pristine preservation of primary sedimentary structures, while the hypothesized latest Proterozoic-earliest Cambrian decline in microbial binding may be reflected in the upward increase in the abundance of sole marks in the succession.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 275 (1978), S. 100-104 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Three intermediate- to large-scale bed configurations are recognised (from intertidal sand bodies in the Bay of Fundy), each with a discrete hydraulic stability field. Type 1 megaripples (‘bars’) form at lower flow velocities than Type 2 megaripples (‘dunes’), whereas Type 2 ...
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-12-01
    Description: Mudstone layers in the tide-dominated Bluesky Formation (i.e., the “mud drapes”) have enormously variable sedimentary characteristics: they range from 0.1to 20 cm thick, can be homogeneous or internally stratified, and can have sharp or gradational upper and lower contacts. Based on recent flume studies, this diversity is interpreted to reflect the wide range of suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC;
    Print ISSN: 1527-1404
    Topics: Geosciences
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