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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of the American Water Resources Association 33 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1752-1688
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Notes: : Programs of monthly or annual stream water sampling will rarely observe the episodic extremes of acidification chemistry that occur during brief, unpredictable runoff events. When viewed in the context of data from several streams, however, baseflow measurements of variables such as acid neutralizing capacity, pH and NO3· are likely to be highly correlated with the episodic extremes of those variables from the same stream and runoff season. We illustrate these correlations for a water chemistry record, nearly two years in length, obtained from intensive sampling of 13 small Northeastern U.S. streams studied during USEPA's Episodic Response Project. For these streams, simple regression models estimate episodic extremes of acid neutralizing capacity, pH, NO3·, Ca2+, SO42−, and total dissolved Al with good relative accuracy from statistics of monthly or annual index samples. Model performances remain generally stable when episodic extremes in the second year of sampling are predicted from first-year models. Monthly or annual sampling designs, in conjunction with simple empirical models calibrated and maintained through intensive sampling every few years, may estimate episodic extremes of acidification chemistry with economy and reasonable accuracy. Such designs would facilitate sampling a large number of streams, thereby yielding estimates of the prevalence of episodic acidification at regional scales.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Allergy 42 (1987), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 629 (1991), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Pediatric allergy and immunology 4 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1399-3038
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Clinical & experimental allergy 20 (1990), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Histamine H1-antagonists inhibit the weal-and-flare responses to the intradermal injection of platelet activating factor (PAF) in humans, and PAF response is reduced in histamine-depleted skin sites. This indicates that mast cell histamine release is likely to be the mechanism of this response. We have therefore studied the interaction of PAF with cutaneous mast cells by observing whether it releases histamine directly from human dispersed foreskin mast cells, potentiates the activity of known mast cell stimulants or liberates histamine releasing factors (HRFs) from human platelets and leucocytes to release mast cell histamine by an indirect mechanism. At a concentration of 100 μM both PAF C18 and PAF C16 caused near maximal release (83·5±4·3% and 88·2 ± 4·5% respectively) of the total histamine content of the cell. This release was not inhibited in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, by the lack of metabolic energy or in the presence of the PAF antagonists WEB 2086 (100 nM-3μM) or BN 52021 (100 nM–10 μM). These results indicate a cytotoxic mechanism of histamine release by PAF 100 μM. PAF (10nM–1 μM) failed to potentiate the mast cell-stimulating activity of anti-IgE, calcium ionophore A23187 or substance P and it did not induce the release of HRFs for skin mast cells when incubated with platelets and leucocytes in concentrations up to 1 μM.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background In a previous study, iontophoresis of nedocromil sodium into human skin in vivo was shown to reduce histamine-induced itch and flare. In asthma, the Na+/K+/2Cl− cotransporter inhibitors, frusemide and bumetanide, have been reported to have many similar actions to nedocromil sodium.Objective To compare the effects of these drugs in the histamine-induced itch, flare and weal response in human skin in vivo and elucidate their site of action.Methods Nedocromil sodium, frusemide bumetanide and reversed osmosis water (control), were introduced by iontophoresis into the forearm skin of 10 volunteers in each of two single-blind studies. In study 1, histamine (20 μL of 100 μm) or vehicle was injected into the area of iontophoresis 10 min later. In study 2, histamine or vehicle was injected 5 mm outside the area of iontophoresis so the flare developed over the area of iontophoresis. Itch was scored on a visual analogue scale every 20 s for 5 min, flare areas were assessed using scanning laser Doppler imaging up to 10 min and weal was assessed by planimetry at 10 min.Results In study 1, nedocromil sodium, frusemide and bumetanide reduced itch scores by 36%, 48% and 34%, respectively, and flare areas by 17%, 26% and 15% respectively (all P〈0.05). Weal areas and blood flux in the flare were unaffected. In study 2, itch scores, flare areas and weal areas were not inhibited. Also, blood flux values in areas of drug and water iontophoresis were not different.Conclusion This study has provided evidence to support the hypothesis that nedocromil sodium, frusemide and bumetanide inhibit sensory nerve activation to reduce the itch and flare responses induced by histamine in human skin in vivo. It is likely that inhibition of a Na+/K+/2Cl− cotransporter in the sensory nerve membrane is a possible mechanism of action.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford BSL : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Clinical & experimental allergy 29 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Visit any international allergy meeting and you will soon learn that there are a plethora of very potent and effective histamine H1-receptor antagonists, or antihistamines as they are more often called. Thus, in order to make any particular antihistamine stand out therapeutically or commercially from the others, additional properties, e.g. anti-inflammatory properties, are often claimed. But are these claims valid and, if so, are the ‘additional properties' clinically relevant? This document will review the evidence behind some of the ‘additional properties' of antihistamines and lay the basis for discussion of their relevance.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Clinical & experimental allergy 27 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background The mediator mechanisms of the cutaneous wheal and flare response, which underlies allergic skin and urticarial conditions, are controversial. The wheal results primarily from a direct effect of histamine on the local vascular bed, but to what extent does histamine diffuse within the wheal? The flare is neurogenic in origin, being disseminated within the dermis by axon reflexes, but do the neuropeptides released from the nerve endings cause the vasodilatation directly or do they induce the further release of histamine which then transduces the fiare?Objective We have addressed these questions by inserting 216 μm diameter microdialysis fibres into the dermis within the different areas of the wheal and flare to monitor changes in histamine levels provoked by intradermal injections of histamine, allergen, codeine and substance P. Twenty-one subjects participated in the investigations.Results The histamine concentration in unprovoked skin was 10.5 ± 0.6 nM. As the dialysis efficacy was 50%, this equates to tissue concentrations of 20 nM. All provicants released large amounts of histamine at the injection site, maximum histamine levels being 337–1293 nM. Diffusion of histamine within the wheai was poor, levels at 2.3 mm and 3.7 mm from the site of injection being 4–22% and 0.2–3.7% respectively of those 1 mm from the injection site. No increased histamine levels were detected in the flare with any provicant. Atraumatic delivery to the skin of histamine in infusion concentrations of 30–10000 nM caused concentration-related effects, at least 100 nM being necessary to induce a significant increase in skin blood flow, a threshold of 300–1000 being required to stimulate a visible flare and a measurable erythema, and 3000–10000 nM being the minimum for induction of a wheal. Thus the skin blood vessels and nerves are responsive to histamine, but at relatively high concentrationsConclusions These data support the theory that the flare reaction to local histamine injection or release is a neurogenic reflex not involving histamine release at its effector end.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Clinical & experimental allergy 26 (1996), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background It has been suggested that kinins may play a role in allergic pathophysiology of the airways, contributing to bronchoeonstrietion and oedema formation. Raised levels of kinin generating enzymes and kinins are found in the airways during allergic responses.Objective Using an in vivo animal model of allergen induced increase in airways resistance we investigated the effects of the brady kinin antagonist Hoe 140, in order to assess the possible contribution of kinins to this response.Methods Guinea-pigs were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OA) or saline via the endotracheal route and the resulting increase in airways resistance was measured by whole body plethysmography. At 240min after challenge, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was taken and albumin content and kallikrein-like activity defennined by rocket immunoelectrophoresis and use of artificial substrates respec tively. Pretreatment of animals with the bradykinin antagonist Hoe 140 at 6.7, 20 or 66.7nmol/kg or aprotinin (46 000 kallikrein inhibitor units/kg) was by i.p. injection 10 min before challenge.Results Pre-treatment with Hoe 140 dose dependently attenuated the increase in airways resistance following allergen challenge. Kallikrein-like activity and albumin in BALF were unaltered. Aprotinin reduced the kallikrein-like activity in BALE but did not alter airways resistance.Conclusion Kinins may contribute to a significant part of allergen-induced airways resistance increase in this model but not via an effect on plasma extravasation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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