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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Scandinavian journal of immunology 26 (1987), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Leishmania aethiopica infection results in two main clinical entities, diffuse disease (DCL) and localized ulcers (LCL). The lack of reactivity to leishmanial antigens has been attributed, among other things, to some inherent immunological defect of the host or considered as a consequence of the initial site of infection. Properties unique to the infecting parasite have been said to contribute little if anything to the differences between DCL and LCL found in the same areas of Ethiopia. Data are given to show that infected individuals respond by higher production of IL-2 to antigens from LCL isolates (Icl antigen), than to antigens derived from DCL isolates (dcl antigen). Furthermore, dcl antigen induced less gamma interferon from lymphocytes of all individuals tested than did lcl antigen. Lymphocytic proliferation of cells from control individuals working in the endemic area was higher in response to lcl isolates than to del isolates. These findings suggest that some differences in the parasites may contribute to the clinical outcome of infection with L. aethiopica.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Scandinavian journal of immunology 1 (1972), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Normal mouse spleen cells cannot make primary antibodies in vitro to the thymus-dependent SRBC antigens if cultivated under conditions where normal homologous serum is the sole serum source, but they can do so to the thymus-independent lipopolysaccharide antigen of E. coli O55:B5 bacteria. Normal mouse spleen cells can make primary antibodies to SRBC if cultivated in normal homologous serum provided that a non-specific T-cell stimulus such as an MLR or exposure to PHA is initiated from the start of the culture period. The same T-cell stimuli will prove inhibitory to the immune responsiveness of spleen cells cultivated in foetal calf serum. Spleen cells cultivated in homologous serum obtained from thymectomized lethally irradiated foetal liver reconstituted donors will respond with a normal proliferative response to SRBC. It is suggested that normal serum contains material which decreases proliferation of homologous lymphoid cells and that material in foetal heter-ologous sera stimulates mouse T-cells to proliferate and secrete soluble factors which enable B-cells to differentiate into high rate antibody-forming cells in vitro.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Scandinavian journal of immunology 1 (1972), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Allogeneic mouse spleen cells of strong hlstocompatibility difference mixed in vitro at equal proportions are unable to make a primary antibody response against thymus-dependent as well as thymus-independent antigens. This non-responsiveness is not due to mutual cytotoxicity, because the reactivity of the cell partners can be recovered if the mixtures are transferred to irradiated hosts isoimmune to one of the cell partners. Responsiveness of allogeneic cell mixtures depends on the proportions at which the allogeneic cells are mixed, the strength of histocompatibility differences, the functional state of the ad mixed cells, the timing of the admixture, and the T/B cell ratio of the ad mixed cells. Supernatants from cultured allogeneic spleen cell mixtures can restore responsiveness of otherwise non-responsive B-spleen cells. The results suggest that interaction between cultured allogeneic T-cells leads to rapid formation of soluble material which, depending on concentration, can either initiate or inhibit the maturation of B-cells into antibody-secreting cells in the presence of specific antigen.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Scandinavian journal of immunology 9 (1979), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Using a reversed haemolytic plaque assay, we demonstrate that live but not inactivated Epstein-Barr (EB) virus can induce human blood tymphocytes to polyclonal Ig (IgM and IgG) secretion in vitro. Unlike pokeweed mitogen this B-cell-activating effect takes place in relative absence of T cells. EB virus thus promises to be a tool for study of B cell function isolated from other cellular influences, although its mechanism of activation appears to be different from that of previously known B cell activators.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Scandinavian journal of immunology 53 (2001), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and interleukin (IL)-10 in plasma of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients and healthy contacts and plasma and pleural fluid of patients with tuberculous pleuritis were examined by enzyme immunoassay. Plasma TNF-α and IL-10 were elevated to significant levels in healthy contacts. High levels of TGF-β and IL-10 were also detected in plasma from TB patients and healthy contacts. Pleural fluid contained all three cytokines with the level of IL-10 being highest followed by TGF-β and TNF-α. Plasma of tuberculous pleuritis patients also had detectable levels of the three cytokines. Increased levels of TNF-α in plasma of contacts and to some extent pleural fluid of pleuritis patients, is perhaps to limit the infection, while elevated IL-10 in plasma of TB patients and contacts and pleural fluid would perhaps modulate excess proinflammation. Elevated TGF-β in TB patients suggests its role in the immunopathogenesis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Immunological reviews 57 (1981), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-065X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Scandinavian journal of immunology 20 (1984), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Using a haemolytic plaque assay for y-interferon (IFN-γ) secretion we found that in vitro Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) exposure of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from EBV immune individuals led to IFN-y secretion, which was apparent wiihin 6 h after virus coniact and peaked 12–24 h after induction. Live, ultraviolel-light-irradiaicd and heat-inactivated virions all caused IFN-γ secretion. In contrast, blood mononuclear cells from EBV non-immune adults or neonates could not be activated to IFN-y production by EBV.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Scandinavian journal of immunology 20 (1984), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A haemolytic plaque assay was adopted to detect release of lactoferrin and mycloperoxidase (MPO) from single neutrophils. Target erythrocytes coated with protein A were bound as a monolayer by poly-l-lysine to the surface of plastic dish. Secreted lactoferrin and MPO induced plaque formation dependent on the reaction with complement and specific antiserum producing lysis of the protein-A-coated sheep red blood cells Lactoferrin was found to be released spontaneously from a fraction of neutrophils while MPO was released only after phagocytosis, reflecting different mechanisms for degranulation of MPO-containing azurophil and lactoferrin-containing specific granules.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 145 (2001), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background In the response to T-helper cell (Th1)-type cytokines and interactions with pathogens, high levels of nitric oxide (NO) are produced by activated macrophages expressing the inducible NO synthase (iNOS). The role and importance of reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNIs) such as NO and peroxynitrite in the host response to diseases caused by intracellular pathogens such as Mycobacterium leprae and M. tuberculosis is unclear. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of local production of NO and peroxynitrite in borderline leprosy by using antibodies against iNOS and the product of peroxynitrite, nitrotyrosine (NT). Methods We detected the presence of iNOS and NT in skin biopsies from borderline leprosy patients, with and without reversal reaction (RR), by immunohistochemistry (n = 26). Results In general, the granulomas from borderline leprosy lesions with and without RR showed high and specific expression of iNOS and NT. Moreover, strong immunoreactivity to iNOS and NT was observed in granulomas surrounding and infiltrating dermal nerves. The expression of iNOS and NT was also strong in keratinocytes, fibroblasts and endothelial cells in close relation to the granulomatous reaction. In contrast, normal human skin showed no expression of iNOS and NT in these cells. Conclusions We conclude that iNOS and NT are expressed in granulomas from borderline leprosy patients with and without RR and propose that RNIs might be involved in the nerve damage following RR in leprosy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background  Nerve damage is a common and disabling feature of leprosy, with unclear aetiology. It has been reported that the peroxidizing agents of myelin lipids—nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite—are produced in leprosy skin lesions.Objectives  To investigate the localization of nitrotyrosine (NT)—a local end-product of peroxynitrite—in leprosy lesions where dermal nerves are affected by a granulomatous reaction.Methods  We investigated by immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy the localization of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and NT in biopsies exhibiting dermal nerves from patients with untreated leprosy.Results  There were abundant NT-positive and iNOS-positive macrophages in the borderline leprosy granulomas infiltrating peripheral nerves identified by light microscopy, S-100 and neurofilament immunostaining. Immunoelectron microscopy showed NT reactivity in neurofilament aggregates and in the cell wall of Mycobacterium leprae.Conclusions  Our results suggest that NO and peroxynitrite could be involved in the nerve damage following borderline leprosy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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