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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Physiologia plantarum 88 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1399-3054
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) is the first enzyme in the base excision repair pathway for removal of uracil in DNA. DNA repair capacity is likely to be a critical factor in mutagenesis and thereby in the capacity to prevent genetic damage and unwanted variation. We have studied expression of UDG in 9 higher plant species. The highest expression of UDG was measured in Solanum tuberosum. A comparison of 6 Solanum tuberosum cultivars showed that the specific activity ranged from 30 pmol mg1 protein min−1 in the cultivar Laila to 80 pmol mg−1 protein min−1 in the cultivar Ostara. Measurement of UDG in Begonia X cheimantha gave no indications of enzyme activity. The possible effects of no or low UDG activity is discussed.In vitro cultures of Solanum tuberosum and Thymus vulgaris were used to examine the effect of auxin and cytokinin on the UDG activity. Axillary shoots of Solanum tuberosum were cultured on medium including 20 variations in hormone concentration. Auxin (1-naphtaleneacetic acid) increased the expression of UDG. Plants cultured on medium supplemented with 3 mg 1−1 1-naphtaleneacetic acid showed a specific UDG activity which was approximately 3-fold higher than the activity in controls. The cytokinin benzyladenine reduced the specific UDG activity at concentrations in the range 0.25–10 mg 1−1.In vitro cultured Saintpaulia ionantha was used to examine UDG activity during initiation, conditioning and multiplication cycles. In general, highest expression of UDG was measured in the conditioning cycle on hormone free medium. Measurement of UDG expression during single subculture periods, clearly showed that UDG expression may vary over one culture period. Expression of UDG was in general highest three weeks after transfer to fresh medium.Of different seedling organs from 0- to 15-day-old Brassica napus L., roots and hypocotyls showed the highest UDG activities. In cotyledons a very low and nearly constant specific activity was observed. In 12-day-old seedlings the activity in roots was approximately 20 times higher than the activity in cotyledons.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Physiologia plantarum 97 (1996), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1399-3054
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The myrosinase-glucosinolate system is involved in a range of biological activities affecting herbivorous insects, plants and fungi. The system characteristic of the order Capparales includes sulphur-containing substrates, the degradative enzymes myrosinases, and cofactors. The enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of glucosinolates initially involves cleavage of the thioglucoside linkage, yielding D-glucose and an unstable thiohydroximate-O-sulphonate that spontaneously rearranges, resulting in the production of sulphate and one of a wide range of possible reaction products. The products are generally a thiocyanate, isothiocyanate or nitrile, depending on factors such as substrate, pH or availability of ferrous ions. Glucosinolates in crucifers exemplify components that are often present in food and feed plants and are a major problem in the utilization of products from the plants. Toxic degradation products restrict the use of cultivated plants, e.g. those belonging to the Brassicaceae. The myrosinase-glucosinolate system may, however, have several functions in the plant. The glucosinolate degradation products are involved in defence against insects and phytopathogens. and potentially in sulphur and nitrogen metabolism and growth regulation. The compartmentalization of the components of the myrosinase-glucosinolate system and the cell-specific expression of the myrosinase represents a unique plant defence system. In this review, we summarize earlier results and discuss the organisation and biochemistry of the myrosinase-glucosinolate system.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Physiologia plantarum 104 (1998), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1399-3054
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The myrosinase-glucosinolate system is considered to be a major component of the preformed defence system of Brassicaceae species. This hypothesis has influenced the belief that the components of the myrosinase-glucosinolate system are present at fixed levels which are independent of environmental factors. In the present study we show that external availability of nutrients can modulate the expression levels of myrosinase enzymes (EC 3.2.3.1). Nutrients such as sulphate, iron, copper, zinc and manganese were tested for their modulation effect on myrosinase expression levels and activity in roots, stems, cotyledons and buds of Sinapis alba seedlings at four different developmental stages. The most sensitive organ was the bud where iron deficiency approximately doubled the myrosinase activity. Removal of sulphate and all four micronutrients reduced the myrosinase activity to approximately half of the activity in plants supplemented with all these nutrients. The myrosinase polypeptides can be divided into classes based on molecular mass after reduction. The nutritional status influenced mainly the 68-kDa class of myrosinases as revealed by western blot and laser scan densitometry of the immunolabelled blots.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology reviews 22 (1998), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6976
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Today, 12 years after the first field release of a genetically modified plant (GMP), over 15 000 field trials at different locations have been performed. As new and unique characteristics are frequently introduced into GMPs, risk assessment has to be performed to assess their ecological impact. The possibilities of horizontal gene transfer (HGT; no parent-to-offspring transfer of genes) from plants to microorganisms are frequently evaluated in such risk assessments of GMPs before release into the field. In this review we indicate why putative HGT from plants to terrestrial (soil and plant associated) bacteria has raised concern in biosafety evaluations. Further, we discuss possible pathways of HGT from plants to bacteria, outline the barriers to HGT in bacteria, describe the strategies used to investigate HGT from plants to bacteria and summarize the results obtained. Only a few cases of HGT from eukaryotes such as plants to bacteria have been reported to date. These cases have been ascertained after comparison of DNA sequences between plants and bacteria. Although experimental approaches in both field and laboratory studies have not been able to confirm the occurrence of such HGT to naturally occurring bacteria, recently two studies have shown transfer of marker genes from plants to bacteria based on homologous recombination. The few examples of HGT indicated by DNA sequence comparisons suggest that the frequencies of evolutionarily successful HGT from plants to bacteria may be extremely low. However, this inference is based on a small number of experimental studies and indications found in the literature. Transfer frequencies should not be confounded with the likelihood of environmental implications, since the frequency of HGT is probably only marginally important compared with the selective force acting on the outcome. Attention should therefore be focused on enhancing the understanding of selection processes in natural environments. Only an accurate understanding of these selective events will allow the prediction of possible consequences of novel genes following their introduction into open environments.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Plant molecular biology 35 (1997), S. 483-495 
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: actin cytoskeleton ; GTP-binding proteins ; plant defence ; polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ; Rac proteins ; signal transduction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The Rho family of GTPases are in higher eukaryotes divided into 3 major subfamilies; the Rho, Rac and Cdc42 proteins. In plants, however, the Rho family is restricted to one large family of Rac-like proteins. From work with mammalian phagocytes the Rac proteins are known to activate a multicomponent NADPH-dependent oxidase which results in accumulation of H2O2, a process termed oxidative burst. In plants a similar oxidative burst is observed and plays an important role in its defence against pathogen infections, suggesting a similar role for the plant Rac-like proteins. The Rho family of GTPases proteins are also involved in control of cell morphology, and are also thought to mediate signals from cell membrane receptors. In a broad search for members of the Ras superfamily in plants, several new small GTP-binding proteins were found. We report here the identification and molecular cloning of 5 rac-like cDNAs from Arabidopsis thaliana, Arac1–5. The Rac-like proteins deduced from the cDNA sequences all share 80–95% homology, but show considerably more diversity on the nucleotide level, indicating that this is an ancient gene family. Four of the rac genes were found to be expressed in all tissues examined, but one gene, Arac2, was expressed exclusively in the root, hypocotyl and stem. Our results show that the rac gene family in A. thaliana consists of at least 10 different genes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2023-02-08
    Description: Marine organisms produce a vast diversity of metabolites with biological activities useful for humans, e.g., cytotoxic, antioxidant, anti-microbial, insecticidal, herbicidal, anticancer, pro-osteogenic and pro-regenerative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, cholesterol-lowering, nutritional, photoprotective, horticultural or other beneficial properties. These metabolites could help satisfy the increasing demand for alternative sources of nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, cosmeceuticals, food, feed, and novel bio-based products. In addition, marine biomass itself can serve as the source material for the production of various bulk commodities (e.g., biofuels, bioplastics, biomaterials). The sustainable exploitation of marine bio-resources and the development of biomolecules and polymers are also known as the growing field of marine biotechnology. Up to now, over 35,000 natural products have been characterized from marine organisms, but many more are yet to be uncovered, as the vast diversity of biota in the marine systems remains largely unexplored. Since marine biotechnology is still in its infancy, there is a need to create effective, operational, inclusive, sustainable, transnational and transdisciplinary networks with a serious and ambitious commitment for knowledge transfer, training provision, dissemination of best practices and identification of the emerging technological trends through science communication activities. A collaborative (net)work is today compelling to provide innovative solutions and products that can be commercialized to contribute to the circular bioeconomy. This perspective article highlights the importance of establishing such collaborative frameworks using the example of Ocean4Biotech, an Action within the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) that connects all and any stakeholders with an interest in marine biotechnology in Europe and beyond.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: archive
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2024-02-07
    Description: Coastal countries have traditionally relied on the existing marine resources (e.g., fishing, food, transport, recreation, and tourism) as well as tried to support new economic endeavors (ocean energy, desalination for water supply, and seabed mining). Modern societies and lifestyle resulted in an increased demand for dietary diversity, better health and well-being, new biomedicines, natural cosmeceuticals, environmental conservation, and sustainable energy sources. These societal needs stimulated the interest of researchers on the diverse and underexplored marine environments as promising and sustainable sources of biomolecules and biomass, and they are addressed by the emerging field of marine (blue) biotechnology. Blue biotechnology provides opportunities for a wide range of initiatives of commercial interest for the pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food, feed, agricultural, and related industries. This article synthesizes the essence, opportunities, responsibilities, and challenges encountered in marine biotechnology and outlines the attainment and valorization of directly derived or bio-inspired products from marine organisms. First, the concept of bioeconomy is introduced. Then, the diversity of marine bioresources including an overview of the most prominent marine organisms and their potential for biotechnological uses are described. This is followed by introducing methodologies for exploration of these resources and the main use case scenarios in energy, food and feed, agronomy, bioremediation and climate change, cosmeceuticals, bio-inspired materials, healthcare, and well-being sectors. The key aspects in the fields of legislation and funding are provided, with the emphasis on the importance of communication and stakeholder engagement at all levels of biotechnology development. Finally, vital overarching concepts, such as the quadruple helix and Responsible Research and Innovation principle are highlighted as important to follow within the marine biotechnology field. The authors of this review are collaborating under the European Commission-funded Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action Ocean4Biotech – European transdisciplinary networking platform for marine biotechnology and focus the study on the European state of affairs.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
    Format: image
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