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  • 1
    Keywords: Colonization (Ecology)-Congresses. ; Marine ecology-Congresses. ; Recruitment (Population biology)-Congresses. ; Electronic books.
    Description / Table of Contents: Proceedings of the 32nd European Marine Biology Symposium.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (369 pages)
    Edition: 1st ed.
    ISBN: 9789401728645
    Series Statement: Developments in Hydrobiology Series ; v.132
    DDC: 575.1
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Keywords: Marine ecology Congresses ; Recruitment (Population biology) Congresses ; Colonization (Ecology) Congresses ; Konferenzschrift ; Aufsatzsammlung ; Meeresökologie
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: IX, 380 S , Ill. graph Darst
    ISBN: 0792352734
    Series Statement: Developments in hydrobiology 132
    DDC: 577.7
    Language: English
    Note: Literaturangaben
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  • 3
    Book
    Book
    Solna : National Swedish Environmental Protection Board
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: 91 S
    Series Statement: Report / National Swedish Environmental Protection Board 3157
    Language: English
    Note: Literaturverz
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1793
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Interactive effects of three alternating normoxia-hypoxia cycles on benthic prey exploitation by mobile fish (spot, Leiostomus xanthurus; and hogchoker, Trinectes maculatus) and a burrowing crustacean (Squilla empusa) were investigated in the York River, Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, USA, in 1989. Predators collected in four depth strata (A: 5 to 10 m; B: 10 to 14 m; C: 14 to 20 m; D:〉20 m) variously affected by hypoxia were separated into size classes (three for spot and two each for hogchoker and mantis shrimp) to examine potential ontogenetic influences in prey selection. The most severe effects of hypoxia on the benthos occurred in the two deepest strata (C and D) and decreased in shallower strata (B〉A), with Stratum A never affected by low oxygen. Predators investigated exhibited dietary evidence of optimal prey exploitation during or immediately after hypoxic events. In most instances gut contents contained significantly larger, deeper-burrowing prey during periods of low oxygen than during alternating peroids of normal oxygen levels. Spot consumed a greater biomass (45 to 73%) of polychaetes than other prey, with crustaceans initially also constituting a main dietary component but decreasing in importance later in the study period. The deep-burrowing anemone, Edwardsia elegans, was an important prey species for spot, particularly in the lower depth strata affected by hypoxia. Prey consumed by 10-to 15-cm-long spot increased significantly in size during some hypoxic events, suggesting a sublethal effect of hypoxia on large benthic species. Polychaetes (primarily Glycera americana, Notomastis latericeus and Loimia medusa) were dominant dietary components in hogchoker, making up between 85 and 98% of the diet. Bivalve siphons became important prey for hogchoker in the three deepest strata and were only consumed after the August hypoxia. Stomach contents of mantis shrimp were difficult to identify in most instances due to the near complete mastication of consumed prey. Crustaceans were important prey initially but became less conspicuous in the diet subsequent to the July hypoxia event, when hydroids became more dominant. Overall, predator species exhibited optimal exploitation of moribund or slowly recovering benthos affected by hypoxia. The sublethal effects of hypoxia through increased availability of benthos to resident predators can have important consequences for energy flow in areas such as the York River which experience periodic low-oxygen cycles.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: manganese ; Crustacea ; sediment ; hypoxia ; biomarker ; Faroe Islands
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Spatial and temporal differences in manganese levels in Norway lobsters, Nephrops norvegicus, were compared with the concentrations of manganese in their environment. Animals were collected twice yearly (spring and autumn) from seven stations along the Swedish west coast and from one site in the Faroe Islands, during 1993–94, and analysed for manganese tissue concentration and content. Animals were also collected from the Swedish stations in the autumn of 1995 and compared with animals from a stressful environment, frequently exposed to hypoxia. There were large spatial differences and the animals collected in the Faroe Islands contained (in most tissues) one order of magnitude less manganese than the animals collected along the Swedish west coast. The manganese level of the haemolymph correlated most closely with the manganese concentration the animal was exposed to in the field. The manganese concentration of the female gonad tissue did however not differ with space nor time and remained stable around 5.1 µg Mn g-1 dw tissue throughout the investigation. Animals taken from an area with known repeated hypoxia in the bottom water, had high levels of manganese in especially the gills. Their mean manganese concentration was over 20 times higher (1560 µg Mn g-1 dw tissue) than the manganese concentration in animals from the other Swedish stations. They also had more than threefold the amount of manganese in the brain, giving a mean concentration of 193 µg Mn g-1 dw tissue.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Hernroth, Bodil; Baden, Susanne; Tassidis, H; Hörnaeus, K; Guillemant, J; Bergström Lind, S; Bergquist, Jonas (2016): Impact of ocean acidification on antimicrobial activity in gills of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis). Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 55, 452-459, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2016.04.007
    Publication Date: 2024-03-15
    Description: Here, we aimed to investigate potential effects of ocean acidification on antimicrobial peptide (AMP) activity in the gills of Mytilus edulis, as gills are directly facing seawater and the changing pH (predicted to be reduced from 8.1 to 7.7 by 2100). The AMP activity of gill and haemocyte extracts was compared at pH 6.0, 7.7 and 8.1, with a radial diffusion assay against Escherichia coli. The activity of the gill extracts was not affected by pH, while it was significantly reduced with increasing pH in the haemocyte extracts. Gill extracts were also tested against different species of Vibrio (V. parahaemolyticus Vibrio tubiashii, V. splendidus and V. alginoyticus) at pH 7.7 and 8.1. The metabolic activity of the bacteria decreased by 65-90%, depending on species of bacteria, but was, as in the radial diffusion assay, not affected by pH. The results indicated that AMPs from gills are efficient in a broad pH-range. However, when mussels were pre-exposed for pH 7.7 for four month the gill extracts presented significantly lower inhibit of bacterial growth. A full in-depth proteome investigation of gill extracts, using LC-Orbitrap MS/MS technique, showed that among previously described AMPs from haemocytes of Mytilus, myticin A was found up-regulated in response to lipopolysaccharide, 3 h post injection. Sporadic occurrence of other immune related peptides/proteins also pointed to a rapid response (0.5?3 h p.i.). Altogether, our results indicate that the gills of blue mussels constitute an important first line defence adapted to act at the pH of seawater. The antimicrobial activity of the gills is however modulated when mussels are under the pressure of ocean acidification, which may give future advantages for invading pathogens.
    Keywords: Alkalinity, total; Alkalinity, total, standard deviation; Animalia; Aragonite saturation state; Aragonite saturation state, standard deviation; Benthic animals; Benthos; Bicarbonate ion; Calcite saturation state; Calcite saturation state, standard deviation; Calculated using CO2SYS; Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010); Carbon, inorganic, dissolved; Carbonate ion; Carbonate system computation flag; Carbon dioxide; Coast and continental shelf; Containers and aquaria (20-1000 L or 〈 1 m**2); Fugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air); Growth/Morphology; Growth inhibition; Laboratory experiment; Mollusca; Mytilus edulis; North Atlantic; OA-ICC; Ocean Acidification International Coordination Centre; Partial pressure of carbon dioxide, standard deviation; Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air); pH; pH, standard deviation; Polar; Registration number of species; Salinity; Salinity, standard deviation; Single species; Species; Temperature, water; Treatment; Type; Uniform resource locator/link to reference
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 672 data points
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2024-03-15
    Description: Ocean acidification (OA) can shift the ecological balance between interacting organisms. In this study, we have used a model-system to illustrate the interaction between a calcifying host-organism, the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, and a common bivalve bacterial-pathogen, Vibrio tubiashii, with organisms being exposed to a level of acidification projected to occur by the end of the 21st century. OA exposures of the mussels were carried out in relative long-term (4 months) and short-term (4 days) experiments. We found no effect of OA on the culturability of V. tubiashii, in broth or in seawater. OA inhibited mussel shell growth and impaired crystalline shell structures but did not appear to affect mussel immune parameters (i.e hemocyte counts and phagocytotic capacity). Despite no evident impact on host immunity or growth and virulence of the pathogen, V. tubiashii was clearly more successful in infecting mussels exposed to long-term OA compared to those maintained under ambient conditions. Moreover, OA exposed V. tubiashii increased their viability when exposed to hemocytes of OA treated mussel. Our findings suggest that even though host-organisms may have the capacity to cope with periods of OA, these conditions may alter the out-come of host-pathogen interactions, favoring the success of the latter.
    Keywords: Acid-base regulation; Alkalinity, total; Alkalinity, total, standard deviation; Animalia; Aragonite saturation state; Aragonite saturation state, standard deviation; Bacteria; Bacteria, abundance in colony forming units; Benthic animals; Benthos; Bicarbonate ion; Calcite saturation state; Calcite saturation state, standard deviation; Calculated using CO2SYS; Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010); Carbon, inorganic, dissolved; Carbonate ion; Carbonate system computation flag; Carbon dioxide; Category; Coast and continental shelf; Containers and aquaria (20-1000 L or 〈 1 m**2); Density, optical standard deviation; Fugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air); Growth; Growth/Morphology; Growth rate, standard error; Haemolymph, pH; Haemolymph, pH, standard error; Hemocytes; Hemocytes, standard error; Heterotrophic prokaryotes; Hsp70 units per protein; Hsp70 units per protein, standard error; Identification; Laboratory experiment; Mollusca; Month; Mortality/Survival; Mytilus edulis; North Atlantic; OA-ICC; Ocean Acidification International Coordination Centre; Optical density; Optical density, standard error; Other studied parameter or process; Partial pressure of carbon dioxide, standard deviation; Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air); Pelagos; pH; pH, standard deviation; Phagocytotic units; Phagocytotic units, standard error; Potentiometric; Potentiometric titration; Proteobacteria; Registration number of species; Salinity; Salinity, standard error; Species; Species interaction; Survival; Survival rate, standard deviation; Temperate; Temperature, water; Temperature, water, standard deviation; Time in days; Time in hours; Treatment; Type; Uniform resource locator/link to reference; Vibrio tubiashii
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 1838 data points
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  • 8
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Hernroth, Bodil; Baden, Susanne; Thorndyke, Mike; Dupont, Sam (2011): Immune suppression of the echinoderm Asterias rubens (L.) following long-term ocean acidification. Aquatic Toxicology, 103(3-4), 222-224, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2011.03.001
    Publication Date: 2024-03-15
    Description: We compared effects of exposure to predicted near-future (2100) ocean acidification (OA; pH 7.7) and normal seawater (Control; pH 8.1) on immune and stress responses in the adult sea star Asterias rubens. Analyses were made after one week and after six months of continuous exposure. Following one week exposure to acidified water, the pH of coelomic fluid was significantly reduced. Levels of the chaperon Hsp70 were elevated while key cellular players in immunity, coelomocytes, were reduced by approximately 50%. Following long-term exposure (six months) levels of Hsp70 returned to control values, whereas immunity was further impaired, evidenced by the reduced phagocytic capacity of coelomocytes and inhibited activation of p38 MAP-kinase. Such impacts of reduced seawater pH may have serious consequences for resistance to pathogens in a future acidified ocean.
    Keywords: Alkalinity, total; Animalia; Aragonite saturation state; Asterias rubens; Asterias rubens, 70 kilodalton heat shock protein per protein mass; Asterias rubens, coelomocyte; Asterias rubens, mitogen activated protein kinase p38 per protein mass; Asterias rubens, pH, coelomic fluid; Asterias rubens, phagocytosis; Benthic animals; Benthos; Bicarbonate ion; Calcite saturation state; Calculated; Calculated using CO2SYS; Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010); Carbon, inorganic, dissolved; Carbonate ion; Carbonate system computation flag; Carbon dioxide; Containers and aquaria (20-1000 L or 〈 1 m**2); Echinodermata; EPOCA; EUR-OCEANS; European network of excellence for Ocean Ecosystems Analysis; European Project on Ocean Acidification; Experimental treatment; Fugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air); Identification; Immunology/Self-protection; Laboratory experiment; North Atlantic; OA-ICC; Ocean Acidification International Coordination Centre; Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air); pH; pH meter (Metrohm electrodes); Salinity; see reference(s); Single species; Temperature, water
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 551 data points
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-09-06
    Description: This paper focuses on the marine foundation eelgrass species, Zostera marina, along a gradient from the northern Baltic Sea to the north-east Atlantic. This vast region supports a minimum of 1480 km2 eelgrass (maximum 〉2100 km2), which corresponds to more than four times the previously quantified area of eelgrass in Western Europe. Eelgrass meadows in the low salinity Baltic Sea support the highest diversity (4–6 spp.) of angiosperms overall, but eelgrass productivity is low (〈2 g dw m-2 d-1) and meadows are isolated and genetically impoverished. Higher salinity areas support monospecific meadows, with higher productivity (3–10 g dw m-2 d-1) and greater genetic connectivity. The salinity gradient further imposes functional differences in biodiversity and food webs, in particular a decline in number, but increase in biomass of mesograzers in the Baltic. Significant declines in eelgrass depth limits and areal cover are documented, particularly in regions experiencing high human pressure. The failure of eelgrass to re-establish itself in affected areas, despite nutrient reductions and improved water quality, signals complex recovery trajectories and calls for much greater conservation effort to protect existing meadows. The knowledge base for Nordic eelgrass meadows is broad and sufficient to establish monitoring objectives across nine national borders. Nevertheless, ensuring awareness of their vulnerability remains challenging. Given the areal extent of Nordic eelgrass systems and the ecosystem services they provide, it is crucial to further develop incentives for protecting them.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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