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  • 1
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: Seite 42 - 83
    Series Statement: Past Global Changes Magazine Vol. 22, No. 2
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-07-21
    Description: Reproducible climate reconstructions of the Common Era (1 CE to present) are key to placing industrial-era warming into the context of natural climatic variability. Here we present a community-sourced database of temperature-sensitive proxy records from the PAGES2k initiative. The database gathers 692 records from 648 locations, including all continental regions and major ocean basins. The records are from trees, ice, sediment, corals, speleothems, documentary evidence, and other archives. They range in length from 50 to 2000 years, with a median of 547 years, while temporal resolution ranges from biweekly to centennial. Nearly half of the proxy time series are significantly correlated with HadCRUT4.2 surface temperature over the period 1850–2014. Global temperature composites show a remarkable degree of coherence between high- and low-resolution archives, with broadly similar patterns across archive types, terrestrial versus marine locations, and screening criteria. The database is suited to investigations of global and regional temperature variability over the Common Era, and is shared in the Linked Paleo Data (LiPD) format, including serializations in Matlab, R and Python.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-09-23
    Description: © The Author(s), 2013. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Quaternary Science Reviews 76 (2013): 16-28, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2013.05.024.
    Description: A proxy system model may be defined as the complete set of forward and mechanistic processes by which the response of a sensor to environmental forcing is recorded and subsequently observed in a material archive. Proxy system modeling complements and sharpens signal interpretations based solely on statistical analyses and transformations; provides the basis for observing network optimization, hypothesis testing, and data-model comparisons for uncertainty estimation; and may be incorporated as weak but mechanistically-plausible constraints into paleoclimatic reconstruction algorithms. Following a review illustrating these applications, we recommend future research pathways, including development of intermediate proxy system models for important sensors, archives, and observations; linking proxy system models to climate system models; hypothesis development and evaluation; more realistic multi-archive, multi-observation network design; examination of proxy system behavior under extreme conditions; and generalized modeling of the total uncertainty in paleoclimate reconstructions derived from paleo-observations.
    Description: MNE and DMT were funded by NOAA/C2D2 grant NA10OAR4310115; SETW gratefully acknowledges support from an American Association of UniversityWomen Dissertation Fellowship. Work cited in this review was supported by NSF grants 0349356, 0724802 and 0902715, NOAA grants NA06OAR4310115 and NA08OAR4310682, and the University of Arizona’s Department of Geosciences and Institute of the Environment.
    Keywords: Forward modeling ; Observational network optimization ; Data-model comparison ; Hypothesis evaluation ; Reconstruction ; Uncertainty modeling
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-12-21
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2014. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Quaternary Science Reviews 121 (2015): 89-97, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2015.05.020.
    Description: Warming over Mongolia and adjacent Central Asia has been unusually rapid over the past few decades, particularly in the summer, with surface temperature anomalies higher than for much of the globe. With few temperature station records available in this remote region prior to the 1950s, paleoclimatic data must be used to understand annual-to-centennial scale climate variability, to local response to large-scale forcing mechanisms, and the significance of major features of the past millennium such as the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA) both of which can vary globally. Here we use an extensive collection of living and subfossil wood samples from temperature-sensitive trees to produce a millennial-length, validated reconstruction of summer temperatures for Mongolia and Central Asia from 931 to 2005 CE. This tree-ring reconstruction shows general agreement with the MCA (warming) and LIA (cooling) trends, a significant volcanic signature, and warming in the 20th and 21st Century. Recent warming (2000-2005) exceeds that from any other time and is concurrent with, and likely exacerbated, the impact of extreme drought (1999-2002) that resulted in massive livestock loss across Mongolia.
    Description: This research was supported by the National Science Foundation under grants AGS-PRF #1137729, ATM0117442, and AGS0402474.
    Keywords: Mongolia ; Temperature ; Tree-ring ; Dendrochronology ; Reconstruction ; Global warming
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-09-23
    Description: © The Author(s), 2015. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Environmental Research Letters 10 (2015): 074010, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/10/7/074010.
    Description: Spatially extensive and persistent drought episodes have repeatedly influenced human history, including the 'Strange Parallels' drought event in monsoon Asia during the mid-18th century. Here we explore the dynamics of sustained monsoon failure using observed and tree-ring reconstructed drought patterns and a 1300-year pre-industrial community earth system model control run. Both modern observational and climate model drought patterns during years with extremely weakened South Asian monsoon resemble those reconstructed for the Strange Parallels drought. Model analysis reveals that this pattern arises during boreal spring over Southeast Asia, with decreased precipitation and moisture flux, while related summertime climate anomalies are confined to the Indian subcontinent. Years with simulated South Asian drying exhibit canonical El Niño conditions over the Pacific and associated shifts in the Walker circulation. In contrast, multi-year drought periods, resembling those sustained during the Strange Parallels drought, feature anomalous Pacific warming around the dateline, typical of El Niño Modoki events.
    Description: This work was performed with support and funding from the Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric Research and Sciences Program (NSF AGS-1120459), WHOI Academic Programs Office Funds, and NSF AGS-1338734, AGS-1203704, and AGS-1304245.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-09-26
    Description: © The Author(s), 2015. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 30 (2015): 226–252, doi:10.1002/2014PA002717.
    Description: Most annually resolved climate reconstructions of the Common Era are based on terrestrial data, making it a challenge to independently assess how recent climate changes have affected the oceans. Here as part of the Past Global Changes Ocean2K project, we present four regionally calibrated and validated reconstructions of sea surface temperatures in the tropics, based on 57 published and publicly archived marine paleoclimate data sets derived exclusively from tropical coral archives. Validation exercises suggest that our reconstructions are interpretable for much of the past 400 years, depending on the availability of paleoclimate data within, and the reconstruction validation statistics for, each target region. Analysis of the trends in the data suggests that the Indian, western Pacific, and western Atlantic Ocean regions were cooling until modern warming began around the 1830s. The early 1800s were an exceptionally cool period in the Indo-Pacific region, likely due to multiple large tropical volcanic eruptions occurring in the early nineteenth century. Decadal-scale variability is a quasi-persistent feature of all basins. Twentieth century warming associated with greenhouse gas emissions is apparent in the Indian, West Pacific, and western Atlantic Oceans, but we find no evidence that either natural or anthropogenic forcings have altered El Niño–Southern Oscillation-related variance in tropical sea surface temperatures. Our marine-based regional paleoclimate reconstructions serve as benchmarks against which terrestrial reconstructions as well as climate model simulations can be compared and as a basis for studying the processes by which the tropical oceans mediate climate variability and change.
    Description: J.E.T. and K.J.A. acknowledge Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution for internal support. K.J.A. acknowledges the Frank and Lisina Hoch Endowed Fund at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution for support. N.J.A. is supported by an Australian Research Council QEII fellowship (DP110101161), and this research contributes to ARC Discovery Grant DP140102059. M.N.E. is supported by NSF/ATM0902794 and NSF/ATM0902715. J.Z. was supported by an Indian Ocean Marine Research Centre fellowship and an Honorary Research Fellowship by the University of the Witwatersrand. H.C.W. is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through DFG-Research Center/Cluster of Excellence “The Ocean in the Earth System” at the University of Bremen (MARUM Fellowship). C.G. acknowledges MARUM–Center for Marine Environmental Sciences for internal support. K.H.K. is supported by NOAA grant NA11OAR4310171.
    Keywords: Climate reconstruction ; Corals ; Paleoceanography ; Last millennium climate
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/msword
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-09-23
    Description: © The Author(s), 2013. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Climate of the Past 9 (2013): 1481-1493, doi:10.5194/cp-9-1481-2013.
    Description: We present a Bayesian model for estimating the parameters of the VS-Lite forward model of tree-ring width for a particular chronology and its local climatology. The scheme also provides information about the uncertainty of the parameter estimates, as well as the model error in representing the observed proxy time series. By inferring VS-Lite's parameters independently for synthetically generated ring-width series at several hundred sites across the United States, we show that the algorithm is skillful. We also infer optimal parameter values for modeling observed ring-width data at the same network of sites. The estimated parameter values covary in physical space, and their locations in multidimensional parameter space provide insight into the dominant climatic controls on modeled tree-ring growth at each site as well as the stability of those controls. The estimation procedure is useful for forward and inverse modeling studies using VS-Lite to quantify the full range of model uncertainty stemming from its parameterization.
    Description: This work was supported in part by an American Association of University Women Dissertation Fellowship and grants NSF ATM-0724802, NSF ATM-0902715, NSF DMS- 1204892, and NOAA NA060OAR4310115.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/zip
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2012. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Springer for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Climate Dynamics 41 (2013): 1291-1306, doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1483-0.
    Description: High-resolution sedimentary paleoclimate proxy records offer the potential to expand the detection and analysis of decadal- to centennial-scale climate variability during recent millennia, particularly within regions where traditional high-resolution proxies may be short, sparse, or absent. However, time uncertainty in these records potentially limits a straightforward objective identification of broad-scale patterns of climate variability. Here, we describe a procedure for identifying common patterns of spatiotemporal variability from time uncertain sedimentary records. This approach, which we term Monte Carlo Empirical Orthogonal Function (MCEOF) analysis, uses iterative age modeling and eigendecomposition of proxy time series to isolate common regional patterns and estimate uncertainties. As a test case, we apply this procedure to a diverse set of time-uncertain lacustrine proxy records from East Africa. We also perform a pseudoproxy experiment using climate model output to examine the ability of the method to extract shared anomalies given known signals. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of our approach, including possible extensions of the technique.
    Description: JET acknowledges the UCAR Climate and Global Change Postdoctoral Fellowship for support.
    Description: 2014-08-26
    Keywords: Paleoclimate ; Africa ; Empirical orthogonal functions ; Monte Carlo ; Uncertainty ; Geochronology
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2013. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 118 (2013): 9000–9010, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50692.
    Description: Tree rings are an important proxy for understanding the timing and environmental consequences of volcanic eruptions as they are precisely dated at annual resolution and, particularly in tree line regions of the world, sensitive to cold extremes that can result from climatically significant volcanic episodes. Volcanic signals have been detected in ring widths and by the presence of frost-damaged rings, yet are often most clearly and quantitatively represented within maximum latewood density series. Ring width and density reconstructions provide quantitative information for inferring the variability and sensitivity of the Earth's climate system on local to hemispheric scales. After a century of dendrochronological science, there is no evidence, as recently theorized, that volcanic or other adverse events cause such severely cold conditions near latitudinal tree line that rings might be missing in all trees at a given site in a volcanic year (“stand-wide” missing rings), resulting in misdating of the chronology. Rather, there is a clear indication of precise dating and development of rings in at least some trees at any given site, even under adverse cold conditions, based on both actual tree ring observations and modeling analyses. The muted evidence for volcanic cooling in large-scale temperature reconstructions based at least partly on ring widths reflects several factors that are completely unrelated to any misdating. These include biological persistence of such records, as well as varying spatial patterns of response of the climate system to volcanic events, such that regional cooling, particularly for ring widths rather than density, can be masked in the large-scale reconstruction average.
    Description: We thank the National Science Foundation for fundingmuch of the research presented herein. RW’s Scottish work is currently funded through the UK Leverhulme Trust and Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) projects, “RELiC: Reconstructing 8000 years of Environmental and Landscape change in the Cairngorms (F/00 268/BG)” and “SCOT2K: Reconstructing 2000 years of Scottish climate from tree rings (NE/K003097/1).”
    Description: 2014-02-29
    Keywords: Volcanism ; Dendrochronology ; Maximum latewood density ; Tree rings ; Cross-dating ; Temperature reconstructions
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2014. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 41 (2014): 9017–9023, doi:10.1002/2014GL062433.
    Description: For the past three years (2012–2014), California has experienced the most severe drought conditions in its last century. But how unusual is this event? Here we use two paleoclimate reconstructions of drought and precipitation for Central and Southern California to place this current event in the context of the last millennium. We demonstrate that while 3 year periods of persistent below-average soil moisture are not uncommon, the current event is the most severe drought in the last 1200 years, with single year (2014) and accumulated moisture deficits worse than any previous continuous span of dry years. Tree ring chronologies extended through the 2014 growing season reveal that precipitation during the drought has been anomalously low but not outside the range of natural variability. The current California drought is exceptionally severe in the context of at least the last millennium and is driven by reduced though not unprecedented precipitation and record high temperatures.
    Description: D. G. was supported by a NOAA Climate and Global Change Postdoctoral Fellowship. Both authors also acknowledge the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Academic Program Office for support of this research.
    Description: 2015-06-30
    Keywords: Drought ; Tree rings ; Paleoclimate
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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