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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    San Diego :Elsevier Science & Technology,
    Keywords: Aerial photography in geology. ; Electronic books.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (140 pages)
    Edition: 1st ed.
    ISBN: 9781483279596
    Language: English
    Note: Front Cover -- Photogeology and Regional Mapping -- Copyright Page -- Table of Contents -- List of Plates -- Preface -- Acknowledgements -- CHAPTER 1. The Aerial Photograph -- HOW AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS ARE TAKEN -- ERRORS IN FLYING -- VARIOUS USES OF AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS -- SPECIAL TYPES OF AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS -- ORDERING OF AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS -- HANDLING OF AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS -- PRINT LAYDOWNS AND MOSAICS -- CHAPTER 2. Some Geometrical Properties of Aerial Photographs -- SCALE -- PARALLAX -- DIFFERENCE IN PARALLAX -- CHAPTER 3. Stereoscopy -- STEREOSCOPIC VISION -- VIEWING STEREOPAIRS WITHOUT A STEREOSCOPE -- PSEUDOSCOPIC VISION -- VERTICAL EXAGGERATION -- STEREOSCOPES -- TRANSFERENCE OF PRINCIPAL POINTS -- SETTING UP THE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS -- ADJUSTMENT OF STEREOSCOPES -- CHAPTER 4. Interpretation-General -- RELIEF AND TONE -- FACTORS AFFECTING THE PHOTOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF ROCKS -- LINEAMENTS -- LEARNING TO INTERPRET -- PHOTOGEOLOGICAL SYMBOLS -- THE STATUS OF PHOTOGEOLOGY -- CHAPTER 5. Interpretation-Structural -- BEDDING -- DIP -- FOLIATION -- FOLDS -- FAULTS -- JOINTS -- LITHOLOGICAL BOUNDARIES -- CHAPTER 6. Interpretation-Lithological -- GENERALIZED PHOTOGEOLOGICAL LEGEND -- SEDIMENTS AND METASEDIMENTS -- INTRUSIVE ROCKS -- EXTRUSIVE ROCKS -- PERMEATION GNEISSES -- AUTOCHTHONOUS "GRANITES -- SUPERFICIAL COVER -- CHAPTER 7. Production of the Photogeological Map -- ANNOTATION AND INTERPRETATION TECHNIQUES -- THE PHOTOGEOLOGICAL MAP -- CHAPTER 8. Field Mapping with Aerial Photographs -- EQUIPMENT -- PREPARING THE TRAVERSE -- FIELD WORK -- FINAL SYNTHESIS OF GEOLOGICAL DATA -- CHAPTER 9. Compilation -- RELIABLE BASE MAPS AVAILABLE -- UNRELIABLE BASE MAPS AVAILABLE -- NO BASE MAPS AVAILABLE -- CHAPTER 10. Photogrammetry for Geologists -- MINOR CONTROL PLOT -- SUBSIDIARY CONTROL POINTS -- DETAIL PLOTTING -- MEASUREMENT OF HEIGHT DIFFERENCES. , CONTOURS AND FORM LINES -- References -- Recommended Reading -- Index.
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    San Diego :Elsevier Science & Technology,
    Keywords: Vestibular apparatus. ; Human locomotion. ; Electronic books.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (459 pages)
    Edition: 1st ed.
    ISBN: 9780080862019
    Series Statement: Issn Series
    DDC: 612.82
    Language: English
    Note: Front Cover -- Progress in Brain Research: Vestibulospinal Control of Posture and Locomotion -- Copyright Page -- Contents -- List of Contributors -- Preface -- Section I: Vestibular Nuclei: Projection Pathways, Neurotransmitters and Synaptology -- Overview -- Chapter 1. Vestibular nuclei: afferent and efferent projections -- Chapter 2. Vestibular projections to the spinal cord: the morphology of single vestibulospinal axons -- Chapter 3. Neurotransmitters in vestibular pathways -- Chapter 4. Synaptic mechanisms of interaction of lateral vestibulospinal neurons with some brainstem structures -- Section II: Neurophysiology of Vestibulospinal Reflexes -- Overview -- Chapter 5. Unit responses to bidirectional off-vertical axes rotations in central vestibular and cerebellar fastigial nuclei -- Chapter 6. Temporal transformation of signals from the otolith organs by the central nervous system of the cat -- Chapter 7. The role of Renshaw cells in the dynamic control of posture during vestibulospinal reflexes -- Chapter 8. Descending cortical and tectal control of dorsal neck motoneurons via reticulospinal neurons in the cat -- Chapter 9. Effects of proprioceptive inputs on vestibulo-ocular and vestibulospinal mechanisms -- Section III: Neck Afferent and Visual Influences on Vestibulospinal Reflexes -- Overview -- Chapter 10. Specialization of sensorimotor organization in the neck muscle system -- Chapter 11. Convergence of neck and vestibular signals on spinal interneurons -- Chapter 12. Convergence of macular vestibular and neck inputs on vestibulospinal and reticulospinal neurons projecting to the lumbosacral cord -- Chapter 13. Integration of vestibular and neck afferent signals in the central cervical nucleus -- Chapter 14. Dynamic and kinematic properties of vestibulocollic and cervicocollic reflexes in the cat. , Chapter 15. Interaction between vestibulocollic and cervicocollic reflexes: automatic compensation of reflex gain by muscle afferents -- Chapter 16. Neck influences on posturokinetic responses to cortical stimulation -- Chapter 17. Synergistic interactions and functional working range of the visual and vestibular systems in postural control: neural correlates -- Section IV: Vestibular Control of Locomotion -- Overview -- Chapter 18. The behaviour of lateral vestibular neurons during walk, trot and gallop in acute precollicular decerebrate cats -- Chapter 19. Phasic modulation of postural activation patterns during human walking -- Chapter 20. Visual and vestibular control of locomotion in early and late sensory-deprived cats -- Section V: Vestibular Control of Posture -- Overview -- Chapter 21. Head-trunk movement coordination in the standing posture -- Chapter 22. On the role of vestibular, visual, and somatosensory information for dynamic postural control in humans -- Chapter 23. Abnormal postural control associated with peripheral vestibular disorders -- Chapter 24. Organization of leg-trunk-head equilibrium movements in normals and patients with peripheral vestibular deficits -- Chapter 25. Labyrinthine control of upright standing posture in humans -- Chapter 26. A system identification approach to balance testing -- Chapter 27. Posture as an organizational structure based on a dual process: a formal basis to interpret changes of posture in weightlessness -- Section VI: Mechanisms of Eye-Head-Trunk Coordination -- Overview -- Chapter 28. Head-eye coordination: visual and nonvisual mechanisms of vestibulo-ocular reflex slow-phase modification -- Chapter 29. Motor control strategies underlying head stabilization and voluntary head movements in humans and cats. , Chapter 30. Tensorial aspects of the multidimensional massively parallel sensorimotor function of neuronal networks -- Section VII: Compensation of Vestibulospinal Deficits -- Overview -- Chapter 31. Noradrenergic and cholinergic mechanisms responsible for the gain regulation of vestibulospinal reflexes -- Chapter 32. Postural compensation in the guinea pig following unilateral labyrinthectomy -- Chapter 33. Mechanisms of vestibular compensation in the unilateral labyrinthectomized cat -- Chapter 34. Physical exercise and balance compensation after total ablation of vestibular organs -- Chapter 35. Immediate saccadic substitution for deficits in dynamic vestibular reflexes of frogs with selective peripheral lesions -- Chapter 36. The role of gaze in compensation of vestibular dysfunction: the gaze substitution hypothesis -- Chapter 37. Effects of melanocortins on vestibular compensation -- Subject Index.
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  • 3
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    San Diego :Elsevier Science & Technology,
    Keywords: Prosthesis Design - congresses. ; Electronic books.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (453 pages)
    Edition: 1st ed.
    ISBN: 9780080862224
    Series Statement: Issn Series
    Language: English
    Note: Front Cover -- Natural and Artificial Control of Hearing and Balance -- Copyright Page -- List of Contributors -- Ad Honorem Professor C.R. Pfaltz -- Preface -- Acknowledgements -- Contents -- Section I: Vestibular and Auditory Receptor Physiology -- Overview and critique of Chapters 1-5 -- Chapter 1. Efferent synapse mechanisms in chick hair cells -- Chapter 2. Cochlear function reflected in mammalian hair cell responses -- Chapter 3. Sound preprocessing by ac and dc movements of cochlear outer hair cells -- Chapter 4. Performance of the avian inner ear -- Chapter 5. Mechanical demodulation of hydrodynamic stimuli performed by the lateral line organ -- Section II: Otoacoustic Emissions -- Overview and critique of Chapters 6-9 -- Chapter 6. Amplitude fluctuations of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions caused by internal and externally applied noise sources -- Chapter 7. Exploration of cochlear function by otoacoustic emissions: relationship to pure-tone audiometry -- Chapter 8. Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions in normal and impaired ears: insight into generation processes -- Chapter 9. A comparison of transiently evoked and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions in humans -- Section III: Central Auditory Physiology -- Overview and critique of Chapters 10-13 -- Chapter 10. Responses to speech signals in the normal and pathological peripheral auditory system -- Chapter 11. Varieties of inhibition in the processing and control of processing in the mammalian cochlear nucleus -- Chapter 12. Functional consequences of neonatal unilateral cochlear removal -- Chapter 13. Functional organization and learning-related plasticity in auditory cortex of the Mongolian gerbil -- Section IV: Interaction of Cortical and Proprioceptive Reflex Pathways Controlling Posture and Gait -- Overview and critique of Chapters 14-18. , Chapter 14. New aspects of human muscle coordination as revealed by motor-unit studies -- Chapter 15. Interactions between pathways controlling posture and gait at the level of spinal interneurones in the cat -- Chapter 16. Fusimotor control of proprioceptive feedback during locomotion and balancing: can simple lessons be learned for artificial control of gait? -- Chapter 17. Gating of reflexes in ankle muscles during human stance and gait -- Chapter 18. Modification of reflexes during normal and abnormal movements -- Section V: Vestibular Control of Posture -- Overview and critique of Chapters 19-23 -- Chapter 19. Synaptic organization of the vestibulo-collic pathways from six semicircular canals to motoneurons of different neck muscles -- Chapter 20. Vestibulospinal reflexes and the reticular formation -- Chapter 21. Stance and balance following bilateral labyrinthectomy -- Chapter 22. Vestibular control of skeletal geometry in the guinea pig: a problem of good trim? -- Chapter 23. Geometrical approach to neural net control of movements and posture -- Section VI: Neuroprosthetic Control of Hearing -- Overview and critique of Chapters 24-25 -- Chapter 24. Quantitative comparison of electrically and acoustically evoked auditory perception: implications for the location of perceptual mechanisms -- Chapter 25. Pattern recognition and masking in cochlear implant patients -- Overview and critique of Chapters 26-29 -- Chapter 26. A digital speech processor and various speech encoding strategies for cochlear implants -- Chapter 27. New hardware for analog and combined analog and pulsatile sound-encoding strategies -- Chapter 28. Speech encoding strategies for multielectrode cochlear implants: a digital signal processor approach -- Chapter 29. New processing strategies for multichannel cochlear prostheses. , Section VII: Neuroprosthetic Control of Posture and Gait -- Overview and critique of Chapters 30-33 -- Chapter 30. Synergies and strategies underlying normal and vestibulary deficient control of balance: implication for neuroprosthetic control -- Chapter 31. Human standing posture: multi-joint movement strategies based on biomechanical constraints -- Chapter 32. An integrated EMG/biomechanical model of upper body balance and posture during human gait -- Chapter 33. Control of standing and gait using electrical stimulation: influence of muscle model complexity on control strategy -- Overview and critique of Chapters 34-36 -- Chapter 34. FES gait restoration and balance control in spinal cord-injured patients -- Chapter 35. Finite state model of locomotion for functional electrical stimulation systems -- Chapter 36. Fatigue during functional neuromuscular stimulation -- Subject Index.
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  • 4
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    San Diego :Elsevier Science & Technology,
    Keywords: Posture. ; Electronic books.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (543 pages)
    Edition: 1st ed.
    ISBN: 9780080862057
    Series Statement: Issn Series
    Language: English
    Note: Front Cover -- Afferent Control of Posture and Locomotion -- Copyright Page -- Contents -- List of Contributors -- Preface -- In Memoriam - Ian Alexander Boyd (23.5.27-14.9.87) -- Acknowledgements -- Section I: Control and Actions of Proprioceptive Feedback -- Overview and critique of Chapters 1 - 5 -- Chapter 1. Fusimotor mechanisms determining the afferent output of muscle spindles -- Chapter 2. Segmental influence of slowly-adapting cutaneous mechanoreceptors on γ motoneurones revealed by cross-correlation of unit discharges in the cat -- Chapter 3. Central mechanisms and selective fusimotor control -- Chapter 4. Discharge patterns of γ motoneurone populations of extensor and flexor hindlimb muscles during walking in the thalamic cat -- Chapter 5. Physiological properties of tandem muscle spindles in neck and hind-limb muscles -- Overview and critique of Chapters 6 - 10 -- Chapter 6. Ensemble proprioceptive activity in the cat step cycle: towards a representative look-up chart -- Chapter 7. Roles of muscle activity and load on the relationship between muscle spindle length and whole muscle length in the freely walking cat -- Chapter 8. Flexible fusimotor control of muscle spindle feedback during a variety of natural movements -- Chapter 9. Analysis of human long-latency reflexes by cooling the peripheral conduction pathway: which afferents are involved? -- Chapter 10. Eye, head and skeletal muscle spindle feedback in the elaboration of body references -- Section II: Control and Actions of Vestibular and Visual Inputs -- Overview and critique of Chapters 11 - 14 -- Chapter 11. Mechanoelectrical transduction by hair cells of the bullfrog's sacculus -- Chapter 12. Comparison of the branching patterns of lateral and medial vestibulospinal tract axons in the cervical spinal cord. , Chapter 13. Afferents and efferents of the vestibular nuclei: the necessity of context-specific interpretation -- Chapter 14. How visual inputs to the ponto-bulbar reticular formation are used in the synthesis of premotor signals during orienting -- Overview and critique of Chapters 15 - 17 -- Chapter 15. Control of the optokinetic reflex by the nucleus of the optic tract in primates -- Chapter 16. Open-loop and closed-loop optokinetic nystagmus in Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and in man -- Chapter 17. The vestibulo-ocular reflex: an outdated concept? -- Overview and critique of Chapters 18 and 19 -- Chapter 18. Representations of ocular rotations in the cerebellar flocculus of the rabbit -- Chapter 19. Oculomotor functions of the flocculus and the vestibular nuclei after bilateral vestibular neurectomy -- Section III: Spinal Integration -- Overview and critique of Chapters 20 and 21 -- Chapter 20. A framework for the analysis of neuronal networks -- Chapter 21. Possible functions of transmitter-controlled plateau potentials in α motoneurones -- Overview and critique of Chapters 22 and 23: Recurrent inhibition - in search of a function -- Chapter 22. Distribution of recurrent inhibition in the cat forelimb -- Chapter 23. Do Renshaw cells tell spinal neurones how to interpret muscle spindle signals? -- Overview and critique of Chapters 24 and 25 -- Chapter 24. A neuronal system of movement control via muscle spindle secondaries -- Chapter 25. Peripheral and descending control of neurones mediating non-monosynaptic Ia excitation to motoneurones: a presumed propriospinal system in man -- Overview and critique of Chapters 26 and 27. Parameter adaptation in the spinal cord? -- Chapter 26. Mechanisms underlying the serotonergic modulation of the spinal circuitry for locomotion in lamprey. , Chapter 27. Relationship of noradrenergic locus coeruleus neurones to vestibulospinal reflexes -- Section IV: Interaction of Visual, Vestibular and Proprioceptive Inputs -- Overview and critique of Chapters 28 and 29 -- Chapter 28. Neck muscle activity in eye-head coordinated movements -- Chapter 29. Comparison of neck muscle activation patterns during head stabilization and voluntary movements -- Overview and critique of Chapters 30 and 31 -- Chapter 30. Head kinematic during various motor tasks in humans -- Chapter 31. Functional coupling of the stabilizing gaze reflexes during vertical linear motion in the alert cat -- Overview and critique of Chapters 32 - 34 -- Chapter 32. The role of stretch and vestibulo-spinal reflexes in the generation of human equilibriating reactions -- Chapter 33. Organization of posture controls: an analysis of sensory and mechanical constraints -- Chapter 34. Significance of proprioceptive mechanisms in the regulation of stance -- Section V: Higher Order Control of Posture and Locomotion -- Overview and critique of Chapters 35 - 37: Inferring functional roles of cortical neurones from their activity during movement -- Chapter 35. What is the role of the supplementary motor area in movement initiation? -- Chapter 36. Control of forelimb muscle activity by populations of corticomotoneuronal and rubromotoneuronal cells -- Chapter 37. Sensorimotor cortical control of isometric force in the monkey -- Overview and critique of Chapters 38 and 39 -- Chapter 38. Interruption of motor programmes by electrical or magnetic brain stimulation in man -- Chapter 39. Somatosensory input to dopamine neurones of the monkey midbrain: responses to pain pinch under anaesthesia and to active touch in behavioural context -- Overview and critique of Chapters 40 and 41. , Chapter 40. Disturbances of motor preparation in basal ganglia and cerebellar disorders -- Chapter 41. Control mechanisms for restoring posture and movements in paraplegics -- Subject Index.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    BJOG 102 (1995), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    BJOG 101 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Objective To determine the diagnostic effectiveness and treatment of women with chronic lower abdominal pain due to residual ovaries or ovarian remnants.Design A prospective observational study.Setting Tertiary referral pelvic pain clinic.Subjects Seventeen women complaining of chronic pelvic pain of up to 25 years’ duration, of whom seven had residual ovaries and 10 ovarian remnant(s).Main outcome measures Persistent lower abdominal pain, pelvic tenderness and quality of life one year post-operatively.Results Six of the seven women with residual ovaries, and nine of the 10 women with presumed ovarian remnants experienced relief of the original pain, loss of pelvic tenderness and an improved quality of life.Conclusions Residual ovaries after hysterectomy and ovarian remnants are established causes of chronic pelvic pain. Diagnosis and surgical removal is frequently difficult. Management strategies are proposed for both conditions.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    BJOG 98 (1991), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Experimental brain research 26 (1976), S. 463-485 
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Vestibular nuclei ; Optokinetic responses ; Visual-vestibular interaction ; Goldfish
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The responses of vestibular nuclei neurons of relaxed unaesthetized goldfish have been examined with trapezoid velocity stimuli under three conditions. Responses to horizontal body rotation in the dark (pure vestibular stimulation) resemble those observed in vestibular nerve afferents. Optokinetic responses to exclusive visual surround-motion are also direction-specific and, in contrast to vestibular responses, exhibit a tonic response to constant velocity. They show three different response profiles, classified A, B or C, based on the neuron's discharge rate: either increasing, decreasing or remaining constant once surround motion is maintained at constant velocity. Following these dynamic effects, optokinetic responses have a maintained modulation of resting discharge until deceleration commences. The time constants associated with the dynamic effects vary between 1 and 11 seconds. Steady-state modulation of optokinetic responses shows a weak relation to stimulus velocities exceeding 10 deg/sec. Responses to body rotation in the light were found to linearly combine the weighted vestibular and optokinetic responses so that accurate velocity information is available for sensory and motor functions independent of the neuron's vestibular (I, II) or optokinetic (A, B, C) response type. The principle of this visual-vestibular interaction is discussed with respect to multisensory processing within the vestibular nuclei.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1433-0458
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Vestibularapparat ; Kalorik ; Normalisierung ; Neuronitis vestibularis ; ENG ; Key words Vestibular deficit ; Caloric test ; Electronystagmogramm ; Hearing loss
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary This study examined retrospectively the spontaneous recovery of patients with an acute peripheral vestibular deficit in order to determine whether the caloric test response and with it vestibular function improves over time. The caloric bithermal was tested three times on 79 patients who were hospitalised with an acute deficit. The first test was recorded on emergency admission by observing nystagmus beats under the Frenzel glasses. Two to five days later a complete electronystagmus (ENG) examination was performed. A second ENG was performed, on average, 4 months later. 46% of the patients recovered a normal caloric canal paresis value (less than 32%). By comparing the canal paresis values in the first and second ENG an improvement exceeding 30% was demonstrated in 50% of the patients and there was no correlation between the extent of the canal paresis deficit and the amount of recovery. A simultaneous cochlear deficit had no influence on the recovery of vestibular function.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Diese Studie untersuchte retrospektiv den Spontanverlauf der kalorischen Antwort und die Frage nach einer möglichen Erholung der kalorischen Erregbarkeit des betroffenen Labyrinthes. Bei 79 wegen einer akuten peripheren vestibulären Funktionsstörung hospitalisierten Patienten wurde der Verlauf der kalorischen Antwort bei Eintritt mittels kalorischer Prüfung unter der Frenzelbrille, mit einer ersten ENG-Untersuchung nach wenigen Tagen und mit einer zweiten ENG-Untersuchung nach durchschnittlich 4 Monaten dokumentiert. Insgesamt 46% der Patienten zeigten eine Normalisierung der kalorischen Antwort, bei 50% fand sich eine relative Erholung mit einer Verbesserung von 30% oder mehr bei der 2. ENG-Untersuchung im Vergleich zur 1. ENG-Untersuchung. Eine kochleäre Mitbeteiligung beeinflusste die Wahrscheinlichkeit einer Erholung nicht. Es bestand keine Korrelation zwischen dem Ausmaß der vestibulären Funktionsstörung und einer Erholung.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1433-0458
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Cochlear implantat ; Stapediusreflex ; Pädaudiologie ; Sprachprozessor ; Key words Cochlear implant ; Stapedius reflex ; Paediatric audiology ; Speech processor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary The programming of a cochlear implant speech processor used by young children is often difficult, especially when the stimulus level associated with maximum auditory loudness (MAL) needs to be determined. Excessively high stimulation should be avoided as this can have a traumatic effect. The aim of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between the intraoperatively determined electrical stapedius reflex threshold (ESRT) and the postoperatively determined MAL and hearing threshold for 27 patients, each having one of three implant types. The question of whether the ESRT provides a practical technique to simplify, improve and accelerate speech processor programming was investigated. For the monopolar stimulation mode used for the Med-El and Clarion implant systems, the average MAL and threshold was expressed as a percentage of the average ESRT across all electrodes. For the ″common ground″ stimulation mode used for the Nucleus implant system, a parabolic transformation was used to relate MAL and ESRT to one another. These transformations between MAL values calculated from the ESRT and the actual MAL values, determined psychoacoustically, diverged considerably from one another. Therefore, it was not possible to determine the MAL from the ESRT with certainty. The ESRT does, however, provide a means to estimate an approximate upper boundary for the MAL, apart from its use to control implant function. The determination of the exact MAL will still need to be determined using behavioural techniques.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Die Programmierung des Sprachprozessors eines „cochlear implants” (CI) bei kleinen Kindern, speziell die Ermittlung der Stimulationsstärke, die der maximal akzeptablen Lautstärke (MAL) entspricht, ist häufig schwierig. Eine Überstimulation ist unbedingt zu vermeiden, da dies beim Kind traumatisierende Wirkung haben kann. Ziel dieser Studie war die Analyse der intraoperativ registrierten Stapediusreflex(SR)Schwellen, die über das CI ausgelöst wurden, und der bei der postoperativen Sprachprozessoreinstellung festgelegten MAL- und Hörschwellenwerte bei 27 Trägern dreier verschiedener Implanttypen. Es wurde untersucht, ob mit der ESR-Schwelle in der Praxis ein anwendbares, objektives Instrument zur Vereinfachung, Verfeinerung und Beschleunigung der Sprachprozessorprogrammierung vorhanden ist. Für die in monopolarem Modus gereizten Med-El und Clarion-Implantate wurde dabei die mittlere MAL als Perzentile des mittleren ESR-Schwellenstrompegels über alle Implantatelektroden berechnet. Die MAL-Pegel für die im bipolar „common ground” Modus gereizten Nucleus-Implantate wurden mit einem Parabeltransformationsmodell berechnet. Die aufgrund der intraoperativ registrierten Stapediusreflexschwellen berechneten MAL-Werte zeigten z.T. große Abweichungen zu den effektiv auf verhaltensaudiometrischem Weg ermittelten Schwellen. Somit war keine sichere und einfache rechnerische Festlegung der MAL und der Hörschwelle aufgrund der intraoperativen SR-Schwelle möglich. Die intraoperative Ermittlung der ESR-Schwelle kann aber nebst einer intraoperativen Funktionskontrolle zu einer rechnerischen Einschränkung des zu prüfenden Bereichs beitragen. Die Festlegung der genauen MAL wird aber auf anderem, vorläufig verhaltensaudiometrischem Weg erfolgen müssen.
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